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Indicators

Globalisation indicators

Export ratio

In national accounts (comparison of the NA/foreign trade concepts), the export ratio shows the relation between the exports of goods and services and the gross domestic product (GDP). It measures the importance of the exports of goods and services in relation to the whole German economic performance.

This picture shows the formula for export ratio

As exports also contain imported goods, the export ratio must not be misinterpreted as the share of exports in the GDP. The share of the GDP that is generated by foreign demand is shown by the export dependence rate of the GDP, which is much lower than the export ratio.

Export ratio
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to the topic National Accounts

Import ratio

In national accounts (comparison of the NA/foreign trade concepts), the import ratio shows the relation between the imports of goods and services and the gross domestic product (GDP). It measures the importance of the imports of goods and services in relation to the whole German economic performance.

This picture shows the formula for import ratio
Import ratio
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to the topic National Accounts

Balance of exports and imports–to–GDP ratio

In national accounts (comparison of the NA/foreign trade concepts), the balance of exports and imports–to-GDP ratio shows the relation between the balance of exports and imports (difference between exports and imports of goods and services) and the gross domestic product. It corresponds to the share of national savings in GDP (positive sign) or is the relation between national dissaving and GDP (negative sign).

This picture shows the formula for foreign trade balance as percentage of GDP

The concept of the national accounts indicator "balance of exports and imports-to-gross domestic product ratio" is comparable with the concept of the foreign trade indicator "foreign trade balance-to-gross domestic product ratio".


Balance of exports and imports-to-GDP ratio
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to the topic National Accounts

Balance of exports and imports

In national accounts (comparison of the NA/foreign trade concepts), the balance of exports and imports is the difference between exports and imports of goods and services. It corresponds to the part of the gross domestic product which is not spent on final consumption or on capital formation. The balance of exports and imports corresponds to national saving. If the balance of imports and exports has a negative sign, the domestic uses (final consumption and capital formation) will exceed the gross domestic product. In this case the balance of exports and imports corresponds to national dissaving.

This picture shows the formula for the balance of exports and imports

The concept of the national accounts indicator "balance of exports and imports" is comparable with the concept of the foreign trade indicator "foreign trade balance".


Balance of exports and imports
Tabelle

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to the topic National Accounts

Normalised balance of exports and imports

In national accounts (comparison of the NA/foreign trade concepts), the normalised balance of exports and imports is measured as the balance of exports and imports (difference between exports and imports of goods and services) related to total trade (sum of exports and imports of goods and services).

This picture shows the formula for normalised foreign trade balance

The concept of the national accounts indicator "normalised balance of exports and imports" is comparable with the concept of the foreign trade indicator "normalised foreign trade balance".


Normalised balance of exports and imports
Tabelle

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to the topic National Accounts

Per capita exports

In national accounts (comparison of the NA/foreign trade concepts), the per capita exports show the ratio between the total exports of goods and services and the population (inhabitants) as a whole.

The concept of the national accounts indicator "per capita exports" is comparable with the concept of the foreign trade indicator "per capita exports".

This picture shows the formula for per capita exports
Per capita exports
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to the topic National Accounts

Share of intra-European Union (EU) trade

In national accounts (comparison of the NA/foreign trade concepts), the share of intra-EU trade is the ratio between German exports and imports of goods and services to and from the EU and the total German exports and imports of goods and services. It is an indicator for the importance of Germany’s trade relations with other EU Member States.

This picture shows the formula for share of EU trade
Share of intra-EU trade
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to the topic National Accounts

Foreign trade-to-GDP ratio

In national accounts (comparison of the NA/Foreign trade concepts) the foreign trade-to-GDP ratio is the relation between the sum of imports and exports of goods and services and the gross domestic product. It reflects Germany's integration in world trade.

This picture shows the formula for foreign trade-to-GDP ratio
Foreign trade-to-GDP ratio
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to the topic National Accounts

Export dependence rate of the GDP

In national accounts (comparison of the NA/foreign trade concepts), the export dependence rate of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) shows the share of the German GDP induced by foreign demand. The GDP depending on exports contains, on the one hand, the GDP directly generated by domestic production of exported goods and services and, on the other hand, the GDP generated from the domestic production of goods and services for intermediate consumption, i.e. for use within the whole production chain of exports.

This picture shows the formula for export dependende rate of GDP
Export dependence rate of GDP
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to the topic National Accounts

Export dependence rate of employment

In national accounts (comparison of the NA/foreign trade concepts), the export dependence rate of employment measures the impact of exports on domestic employment. It is the ratio between the average number of persons in employment directly and indirectly working for exports in Germany and the average number of all persons whose place of employment is in Germany. Persons in employment who depend on exports work either directly work in the domestic production of the exported goods and services to be exported or in the domestic production of goods and services for intermediate consumption within the whole production chain of exports. Persons working partly for exports and partly for domestic final uses are only partly taken into account.

This picture shows the formula for export dependence rate of employment
Export dependence rate of employment
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to the topic National Accounts

Import dependence rate

In national accounts (comparison of the NA/foreign trade concepts), the import dependence rate measures the value added generated in foreign countries by domestic final demand. The domestic final demand – called "domestic uses of Gross Domestic Product (GDP)" in national accounts – consists of final consumption expenditure and gross capital formation. It can also be calculated as the difference between the GDP and the balance of exports and imports (exports minus imports). Foreign value added contained in domestic final demand includes goods and services imported directly for domestic uses (consumption or investment purposes) as well as imports used for intermediate consumption within the domestic production chain of goods and services for domestic final uses. As far as German goods and services were used for intermediate consumption within the production process abroad, German imports will have to be reduced by the incorporated German value added.

This picture shows the formula for import dependence rate
Share of exports in manufacturing
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to the topic National Accounts

Import dependence of final consumption expenditure

In national accounts (comparison of the NA/foreign trade concepts), the import dependence of final consumption expenditure measures the value added generated in foreign countries from domestic household and government final consumption expenditure. Foreign value added contained in domestic final consumption expenditure includes goods and services directly imported for final consumption as well as imports used for intermediate consumption within the production chain of domestic goods and services of domestic final consumption. According to the national concept, direct purchases abroad by residents are included and purchases on the domestic territory by non-residents are excluded. As far as German goods and services were used for intermediate consumption within the production process abroad, German imports will have to be reduced by the incorporated German value added.

This picture shows the formula for import dependence of final consumption expenditure
Import dependence of final consumption expenditure
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to the topic National Accounts

Import dependence of gross fixed capital formation

In national accounts (comparison of the NA/foreign trade concepts), the import dependence of gross fixed capital formation measures the value added generated in foreign countries related to acquisition less disposals of machinery and equipment, buildings and structures, intellectual property products and cultivated biological resources. Foreign value added contained in domestic gross fixed capital formation includes goods and services imported directly for investment purposes as well as imports used for intermediate consumption within the production chain of domestic goods and services for domestic gross fixed capital formation. As far as German goods and services were used for intermediate consumption within the production process abroad, German imports will have to be reduced by the incorporated German value added.

This picture shows the formula for import dependence of gross fixed capital formation
Import dependence of gross fixed capital formation
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to the topic National Accounts

Import dependence of exports

In national accounts (comparison of the NA/foreign trade concepts), the import dependence of exports measures the value added of German exports of goods and services that had been originally generated in foreign countries. Foreign value added contained in exports includes export goods from foreign origin and exports after inward processing (without the value of the processing fee) as well as imported goods and services used for intermediate consumption within the domestic production chain of exports.

This picture shows the formula for export dependence of imports
Import dependence of exports
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to the topic National Accounts

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