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Quality of employment

Dimension 3: Working hours and work-life balance

Information on Dimension 3

Working hours and work-life balance

A large part of the population spends its time working. On the one hand people work to earn money. In this respect, the salary can only be judged in relation to the time involved in work. That is why the working hours are another dimension of the “quality of employment“.

The amount of working hours plays an important role: “too much“ is as often perceived as negative as “too little“. However, in addition to the number of working hours, the aspect of the flexibility of working time has to be considered. Is it possible to freely choose the working times or do the working hours take place at unusual time of day (possibly at night)?

Because of the very large portion the working hours take, the importance of a balance between work and non-working life is often pointed out. The right balance is not only essential for satisfaction and performance of the employed person, but also for the reconciliation of work and family life.

Weekly working hours

How many hours do persons in employment usually work on average per week? Working hours are a major variable of the quality of employment. Hours worked are usually linked to both salaries and workload as well as to the possibility of balancing work and private interests. The group of persons in employment consists of employees, self-employed and unpaid family workers. This indicator covers all persons in employment aged 15 years and older.

In 2017, full-time employees worked about 41 hours per week

Average usual hours worked per week (in hours)Enlarge picture

The usual weekly working hours of all employed persons in 2017 in Germany amounted 35.0 hours. As the number of hours worked depends considerably on the proportion of part-time workers, full-time employees (41.2 hours per week) and part-time employees (19.1 hours per week) should be examined separately.



Working hours decreasing since 1991

All together the usual weekly working hours have decreased by approximately three hours since 1991 (38.4 hours per week). When examining full-time and part-time workers separately, however, it is noticeable that, particularly for full-time employees, the number of hours worked has remained rather constant over the years. In comparison, a slight decrease from 20 hours (1991) to 19.1 hours (2017) is observed for part-time employees. The average number of hours worked by all persons employed is influenced by the increasing proportion of part-time workers. In 1991, this proportion was about 14% of all persons in employment and it increased to 28% in 2017.

Average usual hours worked per week 2017
in hours
CountryhoursChange
compared with
the previous year
in hours
Source: Labour Force Survey.
Netherlands30.30.0
Denmark33.2-0.3
Norway33.9-0.1
Switzerland34.70.0
Germany (until 1990 former territory of the FRG)35.0-0.1
Ireland36.20.5
Sweden36.40.0
Austria36.4-0.1
United Kingdom36.60.0
Finland36.70.0
European Union (28 countries)37.10.0
Italy37.20.2
France37.2-0.1
Luxembourg37.3-0.2
Belgium37.50.5
Spain37.70.0
Lithuania38.50.0
Estonia38.50.1
Malta38.80.2
Latvia38.80.1
Slovenia39.0-0.3
Iceland39.1-0.2
Cyprus39.20.0
Portugal39.50.1
Croatia39.60.2
Romania39.7-0.2
Hungary39.80.1
Slovakia39.8-0.3
Czech Republic40.2-0.1
Poland40.5-0.2
Bulgaria40.80.0
Greece42.0-0.3
The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia42.50.8
Montenegro43.20.0
Turkey46.4-0.4

Weekly working hours in Germany is below European average

With 35.0 weekly working hours in 2017, Germany was somewhat below the European average (37.1 hours). Persons employed in Turkey worked particularly long hours (46.4 hours), while the Netherlands showed the lowest value with 30.3 hours per week. It should be noted here, too, that this figure is influenced by a country’s proportion of part-time employment. The Netherlands had similar results as the Federal Republic of Germany for full-time and part-time employees, amounting to 40.8 hours (full-time) and to 20.1 hours (part-time) per week.


Information on the Indicator

Description or definition
Arithmetic mean of hours usual worked of all employed persons (over 15 years and older) per week.

Source
Labour Force Survey

Information for Interpretation
It is recommended to examine the results separately for full-time and part-time employees as the part-time rate affects the average number of hours worked.

In the last few years, the methodology of the labour force survey has been continuously improved in terms of employment status coverage. Therefore comparisons over time are partly limited. Methodological changes affecting the results were performed especially in 2005 and, more currently, for the years from 2011. Consequently, the results for those years can be compared with the results for previous years to a limited extent only.

In the context of the current changes , the extrapolation of microcensus data uses the population figures from the 2011 Census, which was conducted as at 9 May 2011. The results have been revised from 2010 onwards. With effect from the year 2016, the sample is based on the 2011 census data. This transition affects the comparability of the results with previous years.

For more information please refer to the quality reports and information on methods: Quality reports und Methods (only in German).

Weekly hours worked per household

How many hours do persons in employment usually work per week? And how many hours are worked in a household? Working hours are a major variable of the quality of employment as they are usually linked to both salaries and workload as well as to the possibility of balancing work and private interests.

More than one employed person in many households

In Germany in 2017 the average number of hours worked per household was about 35.3 hours per week. When looking only at households with at least one employed person, the number rises to 53.3 hours per week. This considerably large number of weekly working hours – compared to employed individuals – suggests that more than one person is employed in many working households.

Average usual hours worked per household
YearWorking hours per household
Totalwith employed
person(s)
Source: Microcensus
200533.353.8
200633.453.8
200734.054.0
200834.354.1
200934.354.1
201034.454.2
201134.954.3
201235.054.2
201334.953.9
201434.953.8
201534.753.4
201635.453.7
201735.353.3

Information on the Indicator

Description or definition
Arithmetic mean of hours usual worked per week and household or household with employed persons.

Source:
Microcensus

Information for interpretation
In the last few years, the methodology of the labour force survey has been continuously improved in terms of employment status coverage. Therefore comparisons over time are partly limited. Methodological changes affecting the results were performed especially in 2005 and, more currently, for the years from 2011. Consequently, the results for those years can be compared with the results for previous years to a limited extent only.

In the context of the current changes , the extrapolation of microcensus data uses the population figures from the 2011 Census, which was conducted as at 9 May 2011. The results have been revised from 2010 onwards. With effect from the year 2016, the sample is based on the 2011 census data. This transition affects the comparability of the results with previous years.

For more information please refer to: Quality reports and Methods (only in German).

Excessive working hours

What is the proportion of persons in employment with excessive working hours? The calculation covers all full-time employees generally working more than 48 hours per week. The data are based on the respondents’ self-assessment.The definition of 'excessive' working hours is based on international conventions.


Average weekly working hours cover a wide range of working hours (see indicator "weekly working hours"), part of which are (far) above or below average. Both cases may pose problems: Excessively long working hours may put a strain on people as they do not have sufficient time for their private lives. Jobs with (too) short working hours usually lead to wage losses. In many cases, they are accepted because no job with longer working hours is available (see indicator "Involuntary part-time workers).

11% of fulltime employed working more than 48 hours a week

Persons in full-time employment working more than 48 hours per week, by age groupsEnlarge picture

In 2017, 10.7% of full-time employed persons indicated to have usually worked for more than 48 hours per week. Such long working hours affect mainly men: 13.0% of the men but just 6.3% of the women gave that response.


Increasing age, longer working hours

There is a general rule: the older the people the longer their working hours. Only 2.0% of the persons in full-time employment aged 15 to 24 years worked more than 48 hours a week in 2017. That share rose along with age, so that 13.6% of the full-time employees aged 45 to 64 years worked more than 48 hours a week.

Excessive hours almost normal for managers

One of the reasons for the marked age differences is the large proportion of excessive working hours among legislators, senior officials and managers, which are observed more often in the older age groups. 33.2% of such managers in full-time jobs usually worked more than 48 hours in 2017 – among the other persons in employment that share was much smaller (9.3%). Many skilled agricultural workers (34.2%) and professionals (16.1%) worked longer, too. Long working hours were observed least often for people in full-time elementary occupations such as full-time unskilled workers (2.9%) clerks (4.1%) and craftsmen (5.4%).

Full-time employed usually working more than 48 hours per week 2017
in %
Subject of evidence %
Source: Labour Force Survey
Total10.7
Male13.0
Female6.3
Professional status
Self-employed with staff60.2
Solo self-employed37.1
Employee6.0
Family worker36.7

Self-employed work longer than 48 hours most often

The group working more than 48 hours most frequently is self-employed people: 49.2% of all self-employed work particularly long; self-employed with staff (60.2%) even much more often than solo self-employed (37.1%).
In comparison, only 6.0% of all full-time employees worked so many hours.


Information on the Indicator

Description or definition
Percentage of persons in full-time employment (over 15 years) usually working more than 48 hours per week in all employed persons in full-time (over 15 years).

Source
Labour Force Survey

Information for interpretation
It is recommended to examine (1) self-employed persons and employees and (2) managers separately as self-employed and managers are much more likely to have long working hours than (other) employees.

In the last few years, the methodology of the labour force survey has been continuously improved in terms of employment status coverage. Therefore comparisons over time are partly limited. Methodological changes affecting the results were performed especially in 2005 and, more currently, for the years from 2011. Consequently, the results for those years can be compared with the results for previous years to a limited extent only.

In the context of the current changes , the extrapolation of microcensus data uses the population figures from the 2011 Census, which was conducted as at 9 May 2011. The results have been revised from 2010 onwards. With effect from the year 2016, the sample is based on the 2011 census data. This transition affects the comparability of the results with previous years.

For more information please refer to: Quality reports and Methods (only in German).

Evening and night work

What is the proportion of persons in employment who regularly work in the evening or at night? Persons in employment working just occasionally at such times are not included here. The calculations are based on the respondents’ self-assessment.

Evening work is work performed between usual working hours and the time people usually go to bed (6 p.m. to 11 p.m.). Night work (11 p.m. to 6 a.m.) is done at times when people generally sleep.

Important factors for the quality of life are not only the hours worked but also the times at which people work. Evening and night work are also referred to as unusual or “atypical” working hours.

More and more often people work until late in the evening

Persons in employment working in the evening and at night by genderEnlarge picture

The proportion of persons in employment who work in the evening rose by a good ten percentage points from 15.5% in 1992 to 25.2% in 2016. The share of those who regularly work at night, however, increased just slightly from 7.6% to 8.5%. Men worked at night almost twice (10.8%) as often as women (5.8%).



Evening and night work 2016
in %
Person is working
continuously or regulary
Self-employed
with staff
Employees
Source: Labour Force Survey.
In the evening43.624.0
At night5.98.9

Self-employed finish work later

Nearly half of the self-employed with staff (43.6%), but only about one in four employees (24.0%) worked regularly between 6 p.m. and 11 p.m. in 2016. For night work, the opposite relation applied: Only 5.9% of the self-employed with staff but almost 8.9% of the employees earned their money while others are sleeping.


Information on the Indicator

Description or definition
Percentage of persons in employment (over 15 years) who indicate to work always or regularly in the evening or at night in all persons in employment (over 15 years).

Evening work is work performed always (= on every working day) or regularly (= regularly, but not on every working day) between 6 p.m. and 11 p.m.
Night work is work performed always (= on every working day) or regularly (= regularly, but not on every working day) between 23 p.m. and 6 a.m.

Source
Labour Force Survey

Information for interpretation
Self-employed work more often in the evening than employees. At night, however, employees work more often than self-employed. Therefore, these groups should be examined separately.

In the last few years, the methodology of the labour force survey has been continuously improved in terms of employment status coverage. Therefore comparisons over time are partly limited. Methodological changes affecting the results were performed especially in 2005 and, more currently, for the years from 2011. Consequently, the results for those years can be compared with the results for previous years to a limited extent only.

In the context of the current change, extrapolation has been based on the key population figures rolled forward from the 2011 Census conducted with reference day 9th May 2011, and the results for the period from 2010 onwards have been revised.

For more information please refer to: Quality reports and Methods (only in German).

Weekend work

What is the proportion of persons in employment who regularly work on Saturdays or on Sundays? Persons in employment working just occasionally at such times are not included here. The calculations are based on the respondents’ self-assessment.
Important factors for the quality of life are not only the hours worked but also the times at which people work. Weekend work is also referred to as unusual or “atypical” working hours.

The end of the weekend?

Persons in employment working on Saturdays and Sundays by economic sectorsEnlarge picture

More and more often, people worked not only on weekdays but also at weekends. The proportion of persons in employment who work on Saturdays rose from 21.1% (1994) to 25.3% (2016), that of Sunday workers from 10.4% to 14.1%. One reason probably was the liberalisation of shop opening hours.



Weekend work 2016
in %
Person is working
continuously or regulary
Self-employed
with staff
Employees
Source: Labour Force Survey.
On Saturdays50.923.4
On Sundays23.613.3
On Saturdays and on Sundays22.812.5

Especially self-employed work at weekends

More than half of the self-employed with staff (50.9%) worked on Saturdays in 2016, compared with 23.4% of the employees. Although considerably fewer people work on Sundays, similar differences were observed here: Almost every fourth self-employed person was also on duty on Sundays (23.6%), while with employees worked only briefly one of eight (13.3%).
Persons working on Sundays are very likely to work on Saturdays, too. 13.3% of the persons in employment work continuously or regularly on both days of the weekend.


Information on the Indicator

Description or definition
Percentage of persons in employment (over 15 years) who indicate to work always or regularly on Saturdays or on Sundays in all persons in employment (over 15 years).

Saturday work is work performed always (= on every Saturday) or regularly (= regularly, but not on every Saturday) on Saturdays.
Sunday work is work performed always (= on every Sunday) or regularly (= regularly, but not on every Sunday) on Sundays.

Source
Labour Force Survey

Information for Interpretation
Self-employed work more often on Saturdays and Sundays than employees. Therefore, these groups should be examined separately.

In the last few years, the methodology of the labour force survey has been continuously improved in terms of employment status coverage. Therefore comparisons over time are partly limited. Methodological changes affecting the results were performed especially in 2005 and, more currently, for the years from 2011. Consequently, the results for those years can be compared with the results for previous years to a limited extent only.

In the context of the current change, extrapolation has been based on the key population figures rolled forward from the 2011 Census conducted with reference day 9th May 2011, and the results for the period from 2010 onwards have been revised.

For more information please refer to the quality reports and information on methods: Quality reports und Methods (only in German).

Flexible working hours

What is the proportion of persons in employment working in flexible working time arrangements?
Flexible working time arrangements are characterized by a degree of freedom of the workers as to how they arrange the hours they have to work. The flexible part of the arrangement is, for example, the introduction of variable start and finish times, or the implementation of working time accounts.

In a flexi time arrangement, employees are free to choose when they start and finish their working time. They have to be present only at the fixed core hours and fulfill the contractual working hours. With a working time account, the number of hours agreed on have to be worked without precise instructions on the daily working time. Telework is characterized by the fact that employees work partly or completely at home or on the way.

Flexible working hours offer employees opportunities to reconcile their private and working lives. Thus, for example, family responsibilities can better be fulfilled and leisure time be used more efficiently. However, employers can benefit from flexible working time arrangements, too: they may lead to an increased motivation and commitment of the employees. Both aspects can have a positive effect on performance.

38% of employees worked in flexible working time arrangements in 2010

Types of flexible hours workedEnlarge picture

In 2010, 37.8% of all employees from 15 to 64 years had flexible working time arrangements. About one quarter of employees used working time accounts, just 10.7% used flexi time in order to adjust the start and finish times of their daily work to their private interests. On the other hand, 60.4% of employees had inflexible working time arrangements with fixed start and finish times of their working day.

The share of employees with flexible working hours differed only slightly between the sexes: 38.6% of the men used working time arrangements, which was a slightly higher share than among women (36.9%).


Employees working in flexible working time
arrangements by economic sectors 2010
in %
Economic sector%
Source: Labour Force Survey.
Agriculture, forestry and fishery39.8
Manufacturing (excluding construction)25.9
Construction38.2
Service sector in total28.2
Including
Trade, transport and hospitality62.9
Information and communication70.9
Financial and insurance activities58.1

Flexible working hours most frequent in communication and information branches

The share of employees with flexible working hours was largest in communication and information branches with 70.9% in 2010. In trade, transportation (62.9%) and financial and insurance activities (58.1%), more than one half of the employees worked in such arrangements.
In contrast, the employees in industry were, as expected, predominantly exposed to fixed working times. Among them, just 25.9% had flexible working hours. In the service sector, the share was 28.2%.


Information on the Indicator

Description or definition
Percentage of employees (15 - 64 years) working in flexible working time arrangements in all persons in employment (15 - 64 years)

Flexible working hours are given when the following arrangements are possible:
- flexible working hours / working time accounts,
- fixed number of hours worked, but flexible distribution of hours over the day
- variable working time arrangements

Source
Microcensus (additional elevation in 2010)

Information for interpretation
In the last few years, the methodology of the labour force survey has been continuously improved in terms of employment status coverage. Therefore comparisons over time are partly limited. Methodological changes affecting the results were performed especially in 2005 and, more currently, for the years from 2011. Consequently, the results for those years can be compared with the results for previous years to a limited extent only.

In the context of the current change, extrapolation has been based on the key population figures rolled forward from the 2011 Census conducted with reference day 9th May 2011, and the results from 2010 onwards have been revised.

For more information please refer to the quality reports and information on methods: Quality reports und Methods (only in German).

Involuntary part-time workers

Part-time workers who would like to work full time but could not find such a job on the labour market are also referred to as involuntary part-time workers. The calculations are based on what the respondents indicated as the main reason for their part-time job.

The indicator is calculated as the proportion of involuntary part-time workers aged over 15 in all part-time workers aged over 15. Involuntary part-time workers are persons in employment who indicate that the reason for their part-time job is not to have found a full-time job on the labour market. As a result, many of them have to put up with losses in earnings and old-age provision.

Working part-time involuntarily?

Reasons for part-time work by genderEnlarge picture

In 2016, nearly 11.5 million people were employed part-time. 11.2% considered part-time work as a makeshift solution. They indicated that the reason for their part-time job was not to have found a full-time job. Compared with previous years the proportion of involuntary part-time employees declined markedly (20.8 % in 2010). There were still considerable differences in assessment between men and women. 15.4% of the men but just 10.1% of the women were really looking for a full-time job.

This phenomenon applies not primarily to job starters. For almost all age classes, the share of involuntary part-time workers is more than 9% (except persons 65 years and more).



The number of “involuntary” part-time workers remains high

Share of involuntary part-time workersEnlarge picture

In 2016, again, considerably fewer persons in employment than in the previous year were forced to take up part-time work because of a lack of alternatives. However, the proportion of involuntary part-time workers was still markedly higher than in 1992 (5.4%).

The largest increase was recorded for the years from 2002 to 2006. In that period, the number of marginal jobs rose considerably as a result of legal changes. For the year 2005, the increase shown is probably slightly larger than reality, which is due to modifications in the data collection and processing method of the Microcensus; however, this does not affect the general trend.

High involuntary part-time employment in trade, transport and hospitaly industry

A particularly large number of involuntary part-time workers worked in the industry of trade, transport and hospitality industry (15.1%) as well as in the economic sector of the business services (12.3%). Involuntary part-time seems to lose its significance. In the two named sectors the share was above 25% in the year 2010.

Involuntary part-time workers 2016
in %
Age in yearsTotalFemaleMale

/ = No response, because numerical value is not reliable enough.

Source: Labour Force Survey

15 – 249.29.58.8
25 – 3413.411.119.6
35 – 449.57.126.7
45 – 5412.611.323.5
55 – 6413.712.618.1
65 and older/1.1/
Total11.210.115.4

Family obligations most important reasons for women to work part time

Besides the fact of not finding a full-time job, there are other reasons for part-time employment. Many persons in employment work part time for family reasons: In 2016, 23.2% indicated that taking care of children or other family members was the reason, 15.9% mentioned other family obligations. Women worked much more often part time than men because of family obligations. In 2016, 47.0% of the women but only 9.8% of the men gave one of the above two reasons.

36.1% of the part-time workers indicated not to wish to work full time for other reasons, while another 9.9% mentioned education or training as a reason. It is not possible to really find out whether those groups work part time voluntarily. It is assumed that changes in child care and long-term care services offered have an impact on the wishes for full-time or part-time work.


Informations on the Indicator

Discription or definition
Percentage of part-time workers (over 15 years) who could not find a full-time job in all part-time workers (over 15 years).

Source
Labour Force Survey

Information to interpretation
Involuntary part-time workers are employed persons in part-time who indicate that the main reason for their part-time job is not to have found a full-time job. This definition can be confusing as also other reasons for working part-time are not necessarily a 'voluntary' decision, for example, taking care of children or family members in need of care hinder the take-up of a full-time employment.

In the last few years, the methodology of the labour force survey has been continuously improved in terms of employment status coverage. Therefore comparisons over time are partly limited. Methodological changes affecting the results were performed especially in 2005 and, more currently, for the years from 2011. Consequently, the results for those years can be compared with the results for previous years to a limited extent only.

In the context of the current change, extrapolation has been based on the key population figures rolled forward from the 2011 Census conducted with reference day 9th May 2011, and the results for the period 2011-2013 have been revised.

For more information please refer to the quality reports and information on methods:
www.destatis.de -> Methoden Quality reports und Methods.

Participations of parents in economic activity

What is the relation between parents and persons without children in terms of participation in economic activity?
The employment rates of parents show the extent to which fathers and, in particular, mothers withdraw from working life when starting a family.
The employment rate of parents is defined as the share of parents in active employment in the total population. Persons are considered to be actively employed if they worked in the week prior to the survey. Persons who are on leave, special leave or parental leave are not counted.

The indicator covers all parents aged 20 to 49 years with at least one child under 6 years of age.

A balanced relation between occupational and private life is one of the basic requirements for efficiency and satisfaction at work. For many people who are in the phase of starting a family, a reasonable work and family life balance is of crucial importance for their quality of life.

Mothers put job aside for their family more often

Reasons for part-time work by genderEnlarge picture

In 2017, the employment rate of parents with at least one child under the age of 6 years was at 62.0%. Whereas the employment rate of persons without children or with children above 6 years of age was 72.7%. However, the activity rates of men and women show big differences. Men aged 20 - 49 years without children or with children aged above 6 years show a lower active employment rate of 75.1% compared to fathers having a child under 6 years of age (81.7%). For women this relation is contrary: 70.5% of women without children or children aged above 6 years were actively employed but only 45.1% having at least one child under the age of six.



Employment rate of parents aged 20 - 49
with children below 6 years of age, 2017
in %
Number of childrenTotalFemaleMale
Source: Microcensus
1 child63.446.983.1
2 children64.548.283.1
3 and more children52.833.675.3
Total62.045.181.7

The employment of parents decreases from the third child

Comparing the employment participation of parents with one or two children, it was at a similar level in 2017. 63.4% of the parents with one child were employed compared to 64.5% of the parents with two children. In the case of parents with at least three children - of which at least one is at preschool age - the share was 52.8%. Hence, the labor force participation rate is highest for two children.

Looking at mothers and fathers separately, the same tendencies are apparent, albeit at different levels. While only 46.9% of the mothers with one child were employed, the share of fathers was much higher at 83.1%. With at least three children, the difference between mothers and fathers increases even more: 75.3% of the fathers with at least three children were employed. Among the mothers, this share at 33.6% is less than half as much.

Information on the indicator

Description or definition
Employment rate of actively employed men and women (aged 20-49 years) with children below the age of 6 years in all persons aged 20-49 years.

Active employment is given if a person works during the reference week. Persons who are on leave, special leave or parental leave are not counted.

Source
Microcensus

Information for interpretation
In the last few years, the methodology of the microcensus has been continuously improved in terms of employment status coverage. Therefore comparisons over time are partly limited. Methodological changes affecting the results were performed especially in 2005 and, more currently, for the years from 2011. Consequently, the results for those years can be compared with the results for previous years to a limited extent only.

In the context of the current changes , the extrapolation of microcensus data uses the population figures from the 2011 Census, which was conducted as at 9 May 2011. The results have been revised from 2010 onwards. With effect from the year 2016, the sample is based on the 2011 census data. This transition affects the comparability of the results with previous years.

For more information please refer to the quality reports and information on methods: Quality reports und Methods.

Parents working part time

What is the share of fathers and mothers working part time?
A high participation especially of mothers in economic activity is not sufficient to indicate a balanced integration in the labour market. The extent of working hours must be taken into account, too.

For the following results, the group of parents includes persons aged 20 to 49 years, who have at least one child under 6 years and worked in the week prior to the survey. Those who are on leave, special leave or parental leave are not counted.

It is true for parents too, that employment is not always the same. On the one hand, part-time work allows better reconciling one’s job and family in terms of time. On the other hand, reduced working hours often means having to accept losses in earnings and old-age provision and to put up with career restrictions.

For mothers in employment, part-time work is the rule, for fathers it is the exception

Reasons for part-time work by genderEnlarge picture

In 2017, a total of 62.0% of all parents were in active employment. 93.7% of the employed fathers worked full time while just 6.3% worked part time. For mothers, the opposite relation applied and it was less dramatic: among mothers 28.0% worked full time and 72.0% part time.



The part-time employment rate of fathers grows with an increasing number of children, albeit slightly. Whereas 6.2% of fathers with one child below pre-school age have reduced working hours, 8.1% of fathers with three or more children work in part-time.

Part-time employment rate of parents aged 20 – 49 years
with children under/from 6 years of age 2017
in %
Subject of evidenceTotalFemaleMale
Source: Microcensus
Parents with children below 6 years of age
Full-time employed68.028.093.7
Part-time employed32.072.06.3
Parents with children over 6 years of age
Full-time employed60.635.495.7
Part-time employed39.464.64.8

Part-time: children make the difference

Persons without children in preschool age are more likely to share the distribution of total working population. For them, the employment rate with 72.7% is higher than for parents with at least one child in under the age of six. Women without children in preschool age, compared to the same group of men, are more likely to work in full-time. Whereas 91.9% of men without children under the age of six are full-time employed, the share of women is at 44.4%.

Mothers are much more likely than their partners to cut back on work after the birth of a child. However, when compared with other European countries, many mothers in Germany try to stay in contact with working life by taking the opportunity of part-time work.

Information on the Indicator

Description or definition
Part-time employment rate of women and men (aged 20-49 years) in active employment with children below under/from 6 years belonging to the family

Active employment is given if a person workes during the reference week. Persons who are on leave, special leave or parental leave are not counted.

Source
Microcensus

Information for interpretation
In the last few years, the methodology of the microcensus has been continuously improved in terms of employment status coverage. Therefore comparisons over time are partly limited. Methodological changes affecting the results were performed especially in 2005 and, more currently, for the years from 2011. Consequently, the results for those years can be compared with the results for previous years to a limited extent only.

In the context of the current changes , the extrapolation of microcensus data uses the population figures from the 2011 Census, which was conducted as at 9 May 2011. The results have been revised from 2010 onwards. With effect from the year 2016, the sample is based on the 2011 census data. This transition affects the comparability of the results with previous years.

For more information please refer to the quality reports and information on methods: Methoden Quality reports und Methods (only in German).

Time required for the journey to work

What is the proportion of persons in employment commuting for more than 30 minutes to work?

The indicator shows the share of employed aged 15 years and older who need more than 30 minutes one way from home to their workplace.

The faster the distance to work is covered, the more time is left for leisure activities, family or friends. Therefore the time needed to commute to work is an important indicator of the balance between job and private life.


Two thirds need less than 30 minutes to get to work

Time needed to get to workEnlarge picture

In 2016, 69.7% of the persons in employment commuted to work in less than 30 minutes. Just over a fifth (22.1%) needed more than 30 minutes to get to work but commuted for less than an hour. For just 4.8 percent the commuting times were more than an hour.

The proportion of those commuting for more than an hour to work remained nearly constant since 1991. However, the share of those who take it upon themselves to commute for 30 to 60 minutes was up by about four percentage points since 1991.



Women with shorter commuting times

Men needed longer to get to work than women. While 24.2% of women needed at least 30 minutes to get to their workplace, this was true for 29.5% of men.

Self-employed have shorter distances

Self-employed persons had shorter distances to their place of work. While 28.1% of the employees had commuting times of more than 30 minutes, this applied to just 13.2% of the self-employed with staff. One in two self-employed persons with staff (43.4%) needed less than ten minutes. This applied only to one in five employees.

Full-time and part-time employees by commuting time, 2016, in %
Commuting timeTotal
Source: Microcensus results
Full-time employees
Less than 10 minutes19.2
10 to less than 30 minutes47.1
30 to less than 60 minutes 24.4
1 hour and more5.6
Regularly changing place of work3.7
Part-time employees
Less than 10 minutes29.8
10 to less than 30 minutes48.5
30 to less than 60 minutes16.4
1 hour and more2.9
Regularly changing place of work2.4

Part-time employed have short distances to work

29.8% of the part-time employed needed below ten minutes to get to work, whereas only 19.2% of the full-time employed had such a short distance. While 24.4% of the full-time employed need 30 minutes to one hour to reach their workplace, this was true for only 16.4% of the part-time employed. Most employed (nearly 50%), no matter if part-time or full-time employed needed 10 to 30 minutes for their one way to work.


Information on the Indicator

Description or definition
Proportion of persons in employment who need more than 30 minutes one way to get to work in all persons in employment who provided valid data on their commuting time.

Source
Microcensus

Information for interpretation
Self-employed persons work at home more often and, consequently, have shorter commuting times than employees. Therefore these groups should be examined separately.

In the last few years, the methodology of the microcensus has been continuously improved in terms of employment status coverage. Therefore comparisons over time are partly limited. Methodological changes affecting the results were performed especially in 2005 and, more currently, for the years from 2011. Consequently, the results for those years can be compared with the results for previous years to a limited extent only.

In the context of the current change, extrapolation has been based on the key population figures rolled forward from the 2011 Census conducted with reference day 9th May 2011, and the results for the period 2011 - 2013 have been revised.

For more information please refer to the quality reports reports and methodological information (only in German).

Persons on parental leave

What is the share of mothers and fathers on parental leave?
Parental leave refers to the period of unpaid leave from work after the birth of a child. Parents have a right to parental leave until their child has reached the age of three years. Up to 12 months of the parental leave can be transferred to the time between the child's 3rd and 8th birthday. Parental leave can be divided between the parents or be taken by one parent.

The indicator shows the share of mothers and fathers on parental leave as a percentage of all parents who have a job. Parents with a job include people who are not at work for more than three months. Included are all mothers and fathers aged 20 to 49 years whose youngest child is under 6 years old.

Women take parental leave markedly more often than men

In 2016, almost one quarter of all mothers whose youngest child is under 6 years old were on parental leave. This applied to just under one in one hundred fathers. The parental leave ratio decreases with the mother's age. In the age group of the 20 to 29 year olds, the proportion of mothers on parental leave was 34.4%, while among the 30 to 39 year olds it was down to 25.4%. Among the 40 to 49 year old mothers, the share was not more than 10.6%. For fathers, no significant age differences are observed.



Parental leave ratio markedly higher among parents with children aged under 3 years

The parental leave ratio of mothers whose youngest child is under three years old was 42.4% in 2016. This is about 18 percentage points more than for mothers with children aged under 6 years (24.9%). It can be assumed that mothers often take parental leave until their child has reached the age of three years. Among fathers whose youngest child is under three years old, the proportion of those who are on parental leave doubled. However, when considering this figure, the low parental leave ratio of fathers should be taken into account.

Parental leave ratio rose by a third from 2008 to 2016

The proportion of parents whose youngest child is 6 years old and who are on parental leave rose by one third from 9.2% to 12.7% over the last seven years. The share of mothers on parental leave fluctuated around 20% until, and including, 2010, whereas from 2011 to 2016 it increased by three percentage points to 24.9%. For fathers, a more marked increase in the parental leave ratio is shown, though on a much lower level. The share fathers on parental leave doubled between 2008 and 2016, reaching 1.5%.

Share of parents in parental leave in all employed parents, 2016
in %
Parents with childrenTotalMenWomen
Source: Microcensus
youngest child under 3 years20.92.442.4
youngest child under 6 years12.71.524.9

Parental leave ratio rose by a third from 2008 to 2016

The proportion of parents whose youngest child is below 6 years old and who are on parental leave rose by one third from 9.2% to 12.7% over the last seven years. The share of mothers on parental leave fluctuated around 20% until, and including, 2010, whereas from 2011 to 2016 it increased by 3.6 percentage points to 24.9%. For fathers, a more marked increase in the parental leave ratio is shown, though on a much lower level. The share of fathers on parental leave more than doubled between 2008 and 2016, reaching 1.5%.


Information on the Indicator

Description or definition
Proportion of persons whose youngest child in the family is under 3/15/18 years old and who are on parental leave in all persons whose youngest child in the family is under 3/15/18 years old.

Source
Microcensus

Information for interpretation
In the last few years, the methodology of the labour force survey (microcensus) has been continuously improved in terms of employment status coverage. Therefore comparisons over time are partly limited. Methodological changes affecting the results were performed especially in 2005 and, more currently, for the years from 2011. Consequently, the results for those years can be compared with the results for previous years to a limited extent only.

In the context of the current change, extrapolation has been based on the key population figures rolled forward from the 2011 Census conducted with reference day 9th May 2011, and the results from 2010 onwards have been revised.

For more information please refer to the quality reports and methodological information (only in German).

Persons in employment with more than one job

What is the share of persons in employment with more than one job?

The so called 'secondary job rate' shows the share of those who have one or more additional jobs in addition to their main job. The indicator counts employed persons aged 15 years and older.

According to the right to occupational freedom, employees may do several different jobs. Part-time jobs can be perceived as a burden especially when they are exercised to raise the total income, i.e. because the earnings from the main job are insufficient. But they can also mean interesting experiences and lucrative additional earnings for well-paid people.

Secondary job rate increases

Persons in employment with more than one job by professional status Enlarge picture

In 2016, 5.4 % of all employed in Germany had at least one further job in addition to their main job. These are about 2 million persons with at least two employments. The share has increased by 0.8 percentage points since 2011.

Most multiple job holders are middle-agers. The share of employed with a second job was at 6.3 % for persons aged 35-44 years and 5.9 % for persons aged 45-54 years. Younger persons under 25 years of age (3.7 %) and older people aged above 65 (2.4 %) years were less likely to have more than one job.

Looking at the difference by sex, there were only minor differences.6.0 % of the employed women and 4.8 % of the employed men had an additional job. The background for the higher proportion among women is that multiple employments occur more often among part-time employed, where the proportion of women is significantly higher. More and more employed persons are doing more than one job. Since 1992, the share has nearly tripled.

Share of persons in employment doing more than one job
in %
YearTotalMaleFemale
Source: Labour force survey
19912.02.31.6
19921.82.11.4
19932.02.21.7
19941.92.11.6
19952.72.92.5
19962.42.72.1
19972.62.72.3
19982.82.92.6
19992.52.72.3
20002.42.52.1
20012.42.52.2
20022.22.42.0
20032.52.62.3
20042.72.72.7
20053.43.33.4
20063.53.43.6
20073.73.63.9
20083.73.54.0
20093.73.44.1
20103.63.44.0
20114.54.24.9
20124.74.35.1
20134.84.45.3
20145.04.65.4
20155.04.65.5
20165.34.86.0

Self-employed as second job

Most multiple job holders were employees in their second job (62.5%). A further big group has its own business and are thus a self-employed without employees (33.4%). Only few respondents indicated to have a business that also employs employees (2.9%) or to be unpaid family member in the second job (1.2%).

8.2 hours per week spend in second job

The time spend in the second job was at 8.2 hours per week in 2016. The working time of self-employed with employees was much higher at 13.3 hours compared to employees at 7.6 hours or solo self-employed at 8.5 hours per week.


Information on the Indicator

Description or definition
Share of persons in employment (15 years or over) doing more than one job

Source
Labour force survey


Information for interpretation
Self-employed and part-time employees have more frequently a secondary job than (other) employees.
Compared with other statistics (in particular the employment statistics of the Federal Employment Agency). the labour force survey indicates a markedly lower share of persons in employment with several jobs. The background is that in the labour force survey the information provided by respondents is used, whereas the number of jobs is based on the legally required reports to social security institutions.

In the last few years, the methodology of the labour force survey has been continuously improved in terms of employment status coverage. Therefore comparisons over time are partly limited. Methodological changes affecting the results were performed especially in 2005 and, more currently, for the years from 2011. Consequently, the results for those years can be compared with the results for previous years to a limited extent only.

In the context of the current change, extrapolation has been based on the key population figures rolled forward from the 2011 Census conducted with reference day 9th May 2011, and the results for the period 2011-2013 have been revised.

For more information please refer to the quality reports quality reports and methodological information (only in German).

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