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Earnings & labour costs

Earnings & earnings differences

Earnings differences

Three quarters of the gender pay gap attributable to structural differences

In 2016, the average gross hourly earnings of women (16.26 euros) were 21% lower than those of men (20.71 euros). In 2014 and 2015 (revised) the unadjusted gender pay gap was 22% each. The Federal Statistical Office (Destatis) also reports on the occasion of the Equal Pay Day on 18 March 2017 that nearly three quarters of the unadjusted gender pay gap could be attributed to structural differences.

More : Three quarters of the gender pay gap attributable to structural differences …

2015 Germany’s gender pay gap one of the largest in the EU

In 2015, the gender pay gap, which measures the percentage difference in average gross hourly earnings between men and women, amounted to 22% in Germany. As in previous years, this was considerably higher than the European Union average (16%). Among the 28 EU countries, only Estonia (27%), the Czech Republic (23%) and Austria (22%) had a similarly high or higher gender pay gap. The gender pay gap is expressed as a percentage of the average male earnings.

More: 2015 Germany’s gender pay gap one of the largest in the EU

Trend of increasing wage differentiation has stopped

The earnings gap between low-paid and high-paid workers remained nearly constant between 2010 and 2014. The long-term trend of increasing wage differentiation has stopped.

More : Trend of increasing wage differentiation has stopped …

Earnings
by sector

2016 earnings: average 3,703 euros gross per month

In 2015, the average gross earnings of a full-time employee amounted to Euro 3,703 per month. Extra payments like holiday, Christmas or special bonuses are not included in this amount. The level of earnings depends not only on an employee’s individual characteristics, such as the level of educational attainment, area of work and age, but also on the branch of economic activity in which the employee is employed.

Looking at the highest level of classification, the branch with the highest earnings

More : 2016 earnings: average 3,703 euros gross per month …

Earnings
by occupation

Gross monthly earnings in 2014: chief pilots had highest earnings

Chief pilots had the highest gross monthly earnings by occupation in 2014 (median of 13,198 euros). Chief medical practitioners for human medicine and dentistry ranked second (10,115 euros). Occupations with the highest gross monthly earnings also included legal executives (8,768 euros), chief aeronautical engineers (8,355 euros), chief developers (7,897 euros) and surgeons (7,810 euros).

More : Gross monthly earnings in 2014: chief pilots had highest earnings …

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IN FOCUS / 2017-03-27

Earnings in a comparison over time

In the late 1940s, average gross monthly earnings of full-time employees in the former territory of the Federal Republic were over 100 euros for the first time. Less than 30 years later - in the late 1970s - earnings had exceeded the threshold of 1,000 euros. In 2016, a full-time employee earned an average of over 3,800 euros.

In the new Länder, average gross monthly earnings did not reach the 1,000 euro threshold until the early 1990s. In 2016, average earnings were over 2,900 euros, which was 24% below the value for the former territory of the Federal Republic.

How has the earnings gap between eastern and western Germany developed in the years following German reunification? What are the earnings gaps in eastern and western Germany between full-time employed women and men?

You will get an answer to the above and similar questions by taking a glance at our long time series on average gross monthly earnings. In these tables, the earnings of full-time employees are linked up in the best way possible to form a long time series. They give a long-term overview of the development of earnings and the earnings level.

© Statistisches Bundesamt (Destatis), 2017

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