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Quality of employment

Dimension 1: Safety at work and gender equality

Information on Dimension 1

Safety at work and gender equality

Safety and ethics of employment are fundamental aspects of quality of employment. Physical well being as well as a fair treatment are laid down in the international labour conventions and subject to regulations in many countries.

The indicators of the dimension 1 provide information on accidents and conditions at work as well as unfair treatment of certain groups of employed persons. In particular, the dimension focuses on the equal treatment of men and women or of Germans and foreigners.

Fatal accidents at work

Rates of accidents at work show the number of accidents at work per 100,000 persons in employment. Figures represented are the number of fatal accidents at work. The less often accidents at work occur, the better safety at work is ensured. The risk of accidents differs between economic branches.

Fatal accidents at work occurring less and less often

Fatal accidents at work per 100,000 persons in employmentEnlarge picture

In 2015, 1.0 in 100,000 persons in employment were victims of fatal accidents at work. That is a marked decrease from 1995 when the figure had been three fatal accidents.



95% of people killed in accidents are men

Fatal accidents were quite irregularly distributed between the sexes: 95% of fatal accidents affected men.This is mainly because men work more often in economic branches with a higher risk of accidents. Fatal accidents at work occurred most often in the branches of transportation and storage, construction and water supply.

Fatal accidents at work
per 100,000 persons
in employment
YearTotal
Source: European Statistics on
Accidents at Work (ESAW).
19943.7
19953.0
19963.5
19972.7
19982.2
19992.4
20002.1
20012.0
20022.5
20032.3
20042.2
20051.8
20062.1
20071.8
20081.6
20091.1
20101.2
20111.2
20121.2
20131.0
20141.1
20151.0


Information on the Indicator

Description or definition
Incident rate of fatal accidents at work per 100,000 persons in employment.

A fatal accident is an accident that leads to the death of the victim within one year after the accident.

Source
European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW).
Additional information: The results are based on reports of the statutory accident insurance.

Information for interpretation
Possible time series break in 2008 due to the introduction of the international classification of economic activities (NACE Revision 2).

For more information please refer to:

Eurostat (Statistical Office of the European Union), Health and safety at work.
Eurostat (Detailed statistics on the EU and candidate countries), Accidents at work.

Non-fatal accidents at work

Rates of accidents at work show the number of accidents at work per 100,000 persons in employment. Figures represented are the total number of accidents at work to the extent that they entail the loss of more than three working days.

The less often accidents at work occur, the better safety at work is ensured. The risk of accidents differs between economic branches.

Decrease in non-fatal accidents

Non-fatal accidents at workEnlarge picture

Out of 100,000 persons in employment, about 1,812 people (1.8%) had a non-fatal accident at work in Germany in 2015. These figures, too, have decreased since the early 1990s. In non-fatal accidents, too, men were more often affected than women. 1,000 accidents occurred per 100,000 women in employment, while for men the figure was 2,600 accidents.



Construction workers most often affected

The economic branch of water supply,sewerage,waste management was most often affected by accidents in 2015 (5,024 accidents per 100,000 persons in employment). In the branch of construction, accidents at work occurred relatively often (4,850 per 100,000 persons in employment).

Non-fatal accidents at work with absence from work
for more than 3 days per 100,000 persons in employment
YearTotalFemaleMale
Source: European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW).
19945,5832,1657,513
19955,2492,0897,027
19965,0982,1766,772
19975,0212,1106,685
19984,9582,1236,578
19994,9082,1096,539
20004,7572,1056,320
20014,3802,0025,827
20024,0821,8445,491
20033,6741,5964,935
20043,6181,6444,861
20053,2331,4534,306
20063,2761,4384,400
20073,1251,3544,199
20082,4371,1713,512
20091,8561,0002,526
20101,9761,0232,807
20112,0581,0043,016
20121,9569982,821
20131,9001,0102,719
20141,8569892,648
20151,8129862,567


Information on the Indicator

Description or definition
Incident rate of non-fatal accidents at work per 100,000 persons in employment.

A non-fatal accident is an accident that leads to absence from work for at least 3 days.
Source
European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW).
Additional information: The results are based on reports of the statutory accident insurance.

Information for interpretation
Possible time series break in 2008 due to the introduction of the international classification of economic activities (NACE Revision 2).

For more information please refer to:

Eurostat (Statistical Office of the European Union), Health and safety at work.
Eurostat (Detailed statistics on the EU and candidate countries), Accidents at work.

Mental strain at work

What is the proportion of persons in employment who are exposed to mental strain at work? The calculation covers all persons in employment who felt they had health problems during the last twelve months prior to the survey. The data are based on the respondents’ self-assessment but not on medical diagnoses.

Health risks at work are not only a matter of accidents. The job itself may also be perceived as physical or mental strain.

Mental strain marginally lower frequent than physical strain

Employed persons who are exposed to time pressure or overload of work in selected occupationsEnlarge picture

In 2013, 16.5% of the persons in employment indicated to be affected by mental risks. Factors thought to trigger such strain are time and work pressure (15.3%), mobbing or harassment at work (just under 1%) is comparatively playing a minor role.



Employed persons under time pressure in %
Age from ... to ... years2013

/ = No response, because numerical value is not reliable enough

Source: Labour Force Survey (Ad hoc module, 2013).

15 – 246.8
25 – 3415.6
35 – 4417.0
45 – 5417.9
55 – 6415.2
65 and older/
Total15.3


Information on the Indicator

Description or definition
Percentage of employees (aged 15 years and up) who are exposed to mental stress due to work load and time pressure in all persons in employment (aged 15 years and older).

Stress is present if respondents have indicated “time pressure and work overload”. Beyond that, psychological hazard meansthreat of violence, mobbing and harassment at work.

Source
Labour Force Survey (ad hoc module 2013).

Information for interpretation
The results are based on a self-assessment of the respondents.
In the last few years, the methodology of the labour force survey has been continuously improved in terms of employment status coverage. Therefore comparisons over time are partly limited. Methodological changes affecting the results were performed especially in 2005 and, more currently, for the years from 2011. Consequently, the results for those years can be compared with the results for previous years to a limited extent only.

For more information please refer to the quality reports and information on methods: Quality reports and Methods (only in German).

Physical strain at work

What is the proportion of persons in employment who are exposed to physical strain at work? Physical health risk factors are for example hazards for the respiratory system, eyes, ears and the musculoskeletal system. The calculation covers all persons in employment who felt they had had health problems during the last twelve months prior to the survey. The data are based on the respondents’ self-assessment but not on medical diagnoses.

Health risks at work are not only a matter of accidents. The job itself may also be perceived as physical or mental strain and lead to health problems.

24% are exposed to physical strain at work

Persons reporting the physical factor they were most exposed to by typeEnlarge picture

In 2013 one quarter of the employed persons felt under physical strain at work. Men were more often exposed to physical hazards than women. 26 in 100 men indicated to be under physical strain, while 22 in 100 women were affected.



Employed persons by type of physical strain 2013
in %
Type of physical strainTotalFemaleMale
Source: Labour Force Survey (ad hoc module 2013).
Physical exposition to any physical strain24.422.226.3
Mainly exposition to chemicals, dusts, fumes, smoke or gases2.51.53.3
Mainly exposition to noise or vibration1.61.02.2
Mainly exposition to difficult work postures12.413.511.5
Mainly exposition to handling of heavy loads4.63.55.5
Mainly exposition to risk of accidents1.50.82.1
Mainly exposition to stressful activities for eyes and eyesight1.81.91.8

The exposure to hazards is most often due to "difficult postures” (12.4%) and “handling of heavy loads" (4.6%). Further risks occur through working in an environment with "noise or vibration" (1.6%) when workers are exposed to "dust, smoke, chemicals, fumes and gases" at work which is true for abaout 2.5%. 1.8% of respondents indicate to be exposed to "stressful activities for eyes and eyesight".

Employed persons in agriculture, fishery and construction were and crafts affected most often to physical strain at work (about 40%). Also in industry occupations the exposure to hazards occurred with 30% above average. In contrast, people with office jobs in the financial- and insurance activities sector were not so often affected. But also in this sector at least 12% felt exposed to physical risk factors.

Information on the Indicator

Description or definition
Percentage of employees (aged 15 years and older) who report an exposition to physical strain at work in all persons in employment (aged 15 years and older)

Physical strain is given by at least one of the following answers:
- mainly chemicals, dust, vapours, smoke or gases
- mainly noise and vibration                        
- mainly difficult body postures        
- mainly to handling of heavy loads
- mainly danger of accidents.                        
- mainly to stressful activities for eyes and eyesight

Source
Labour Force Survey, Ad hoc module 2013

Information for interpretation
In the last few years, the methodology of the labour force survey has been continuously improved in terms of employment status coverage. Therefore comparisons over time are partly limited. Methodological changes affecting the results were performed especially in 2005 and, more currently, for the years from 2011. Consequently, the results for those years can be compared with the results for previous years to a limited extent only.

For more information please refer to the quality reports and information on methods: Quality reports und Methods (only in German).

Participation of women in working life

Women are not engaged in economic activity to the same extent as men. The share of women in all persons in employment shows how often women are engaged in gainful activity in comparison to their proportion of the population. The indicator does not contain any information on the type and extent of the activity performed.

There were 46.5 women in 100 persons in gainful employment in 2016. Compared with their share in the total population (50.8%), women were still underrepresented in economic life in Germany.

Difference between women and men decreasing

Share of women in all persons in employmentEnlarge picture

The difference in participation in economic activity between women and men has markedly decreased since the 1990s. In 1996 the share of women was 42.8% and increased to 46.5% in 2016. Since 2013, the share has remained constant.



Women in employment by professional status and full-/part-time employment
in %
Subject of evidence19962006
2016
Source: Labour Force Survey.
Total42.845.346.5
Full-time/Part-time
Full-time34.033.134.1
Part-time 86.9 80.378.7
Professional status
Self-employed with staff 21.4 24.225.5
Solo self-employed 33.1 35.638.7
Employee44.046.848.0
Family workers 81.3 76.8 67.5

Women aged 55 or over catching up most quickly

When comparing 1996 with 2016, women aged 55 to 64 years caught up most quickly. The proportion of women in employment in that age group rose well 9 percentage points from 37.6% to 47.0% and achieved almost the level of the total population. What is compared here is different birth cohorts, for example, the women aged 55 to 64 years in 2016 with those aged 55 to 64 years in 1996.

Regarding younger women, fewer intense changes and increases are observed over time, because women of younger birth cohorts have for a long time been much more often employed than older cohorts. In terms of women aged under 25 years, the female share of all persons in employment even decreased slightly compared with 1996.


Information on the Indicator

Description or definition
Percentage of employed women (aged 15 years and older) in all persons in employment (aged 15 years and older).

Source
Labour Force Survey.

Information for interpretation
In the last few years, the methodology of the labour force survey has been continuously improved in terms of employment status coverage. Therefore comparisons over time are partly limited. Methodological changes affecting the results were performed especially in 2005 and, more currently, for the years from 2011. Consequently, the results for those years can be compared with the results for previous years to a limited extent only.

In the context of the current change, extrapolation has been based on the key population figures rolled forward from the 2011 Census conducted with reference day 9th May 2011, and the results for the period from 2010 onwards have been revised.

For more information please refer to the quality reports and information on methods: Quality reports and Methods (only in German).

Participation of women in economic activity by occupations

What is the proportion of women in specific occupational groups? Differences in the female share may indicate both the discrimination of women in specific occupational groups and different preferences when choosing an occupation. Even though the share of women in all persons in employment has markedly increased, women still often choose their occupation within a limited range of activities.

The percentages of women in the various occupational groups have not changed much since the early 1990s. Choosing typical female or male occupations frequently involves differences in earnings and careers.

Share of women in selected occupational groupsEnlarge picture

More women in academic occupations

The differences between men and women were much smaller among professionals such as physicians, legal professionals, teachers or social scientists (ISCO group 2). There the proportion of women was 44.5% in 2016. Compared to legislators, senior officials and managers female professionals have increased by more than 20% since the 1990s.

Women are found most often in service and office jobs

In 2016, women wer significantly over-represented in office and service occupations. Nearly two thirds of all office workers and commercial employees were women. For employed persons in service occupations women were represented with a share of 62.9%.



Men dominating in crafts and industry

Women were strongly underrepresented in crafts as well as in industry and agriculture. Only 11.1% of the employed persons in craft occupations were women. Work in the industry (e.g. operating of machines as well as assembly works) was carried out only to 14.2% by women. The percentage of women employed in agriculture was 18.8%.

While the share of women in craft occupations in 1992 coincides with the current figures from 2016, it has actually been declining in industrial occupations over the last two decades. Their share has fallen from 18.3% to 14.2% in 2016.

Information on the Indicator

Description or definition
Percentage of women and men in economic activity (aged 15 years and older) by occupation (ISCO major groups) in all persons in employment (aged 15 years and older).

ISCO is the International Standard Classification of Occupations.

Source
Labour Force Survey

Information for interpretation
In the last few years, the methodology of the labour force survey has been continuously improved in terms of employment status coverage. Therefore comparisons over time are partly limited. Methodological changes affecting the results were performed especially in 2005 and, more currently, for the years from 2011. Consequently, the results for those years can be compared with the results for previous years to a limited extent only.

In the context of the current change, extrapolation has been based on the key population figures rolled forward from the 2011 Census conducted with reference day 9th May 2011, and the results for the period from 2010 onwards have been revised.

A break in the time series may be visible in 2012 due to the introduction of the new International Classification of Occupations (ISCO-08).

The information on craft and related trades workers refers to the 7th major group of the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO). The craft and related occupations differ from the occupations of the German Handicrafts Regulation Act.

For more information please refer to: Quality reports and Methods (only in German).

Women in managerial occupations

What is the proportion of women in managerial positions? Managerial positions include managers of small enterprises, corporate managers and senior officials.

Even though the percentage of women in all persons in employment has markedly increased, women still often choose their occupation within a limited range of activities. All together, the percentages of women in the various occupational groups have not changed much since the early 1990s. Choosing typical female or male occupations frequently involves differences in earnings and careers.

Only one in three managers is a woman

Less than one in three legislators, senior officials and managers (29.3%) was female in 2016. This proportion has not changed much (+0.7 percentage points) since 2012, when the current classification was introduced. The proportion of female legislators, senior officials and managers increased from 25.8% in 1992 to 30.3% in 2011. The values have only a limited comparability with the current results.

Managerial positions include directors and managers in trade, production and service activities.

Share of women in managerial occupations1 by age in %
Age from ... to ... years2016

1 Managerial occupations = employed in

ISCO-major group 1.

/ = No response, because numerical value is not reliable enough

Source: Labour Force Survey.

15 to 2443.5
25 to 3435.7
25 to 6429.3
35 to 4428.5
45 to 5427.6
55 to 6429.1
65 to 7425.1
75 and older/

More women in academic occupations

The differences between men and women were much smaller among professionals such as physicians, legal professionals, teachers or social scientists (ISCO group 2). There the proportion of women was 44.5% in 2016. Compared to legislators, senior officials and managers female professionals have increased by nearly 30% since the 1990s.


Information on the Indicator

Description or definition
Percentage of women in all gainful employed persons (aged 15 years and older) by occupation (ISCO major groups 1 and 2).

ISCO is the International Standard Classification of Occupations.

Source
Labour Force Survey.

Information for interpretation
A break in the time series may be visible in 2012 dure to the introduction of the new International Classification of Occupations (ISCO-08).

Compared to other sources - depending on source - different classifications terms of executives and graduate professionals are possible.

In the last few years, the methodology of the labour force survey has been continuously improved in terms of employment status coverage. Therefore comparisons over time are partly limited. Methodological changes affecting the results were performed especially in 2005 and, more currently, for the years from 2011. Consequently, the results for those years can be compared with the results for previous years to a limited extent only.

In the context of the current change, extrapolation has been based on the key population figures rolled forward from the 2011 Census conducted with reference day 9th May 2011, and the results for the period from 2010 onwards have been revised.


For more information please refer to the quality reports and information on methods: Quality reports and Methods (only in German).

Gender Pay Gap

The gender pay gap is defined as the difference between the average gross hourly earnings of men and women expressed as a percentage of the average gross hourly earnings of men (without special payments).

Persons employed in agriculture and public service or enterprises with less than ten workers are not included.

The pay gap between men and women is a sign of a lack of equal treatment. It is however based on many causes. Women and men differ in working lives and in the choice of occupational sectors. In many cases, this leads to different careers and to earnings gaps.

Gender Pay Gap in selected economic branchesEnlarge picture

Women earn 21% less

The average gross hourly earnings of women were by 21% lower than the earnings of men in 2016. The differences in western Germany (and Berlin), amounting to 23%, were markedly larger than those in the Eastern part of Germany (7%).

Gender pay gap constant for years

Since 2002, the earnings gap between women and men has been nearly constant. The Federal Government aims to reduce the pay gap to 10% by the year 2030.

Men earn more than women in every economic branch

In 2016 the gender pay gap differed considerably between economic branches. The largest difference was discovered on "professional, scientific and technical activities" (31%) followed by art, entertainment and recreation (29%), financial and insurance activities" (28%), "manufacturing" as well as the sector "information and communication" (25% each). The gaps between the pay of women and men was also at a relative high level in the branches of "trade" (23%), where men traditionally are found more often than woman.

In the branches "water supply, sewerage and waste management and remediation activities" (6%) as well as "transport and storage" (7%) gender pay gap has comparative low turned out. Certainly there are only a few of number of women employed.

There was not only one branch of economic activity where women earned more than men.

Differences in income between men and women1
in %
YearGermanyFormer territory
of the Federal
Republic of
Germany
New
Länder

1 Unadjusted values.

Source: Structure of Earnings Survey 2006;
updated using results of the quarterly earnings survey.

200623246
200723246
200823246
200923246
201022247
201122247
201222248
201322238
201422239
201521238
201621237


Information on the Indicator

Description or definition
Percentage difference of the average hourly gross earnings of men and women, proportionately on the average hourly gross earnings of men.

Source
Structure of Earnings Survey and quarterly earnings survey.

Information for interpretation
When interpreting the values, it should be taken into account, that they refer to the unadjusted gender pay gap. On that basis, it is not possible, to derive information on the difference in earnings between female and male persons employed with the same occupations, comparable activities and equivalent levels of qualification.

The unadjusted gender pay gap (GPG) is calculated for all NACE groups with exception of "agriculture and forestry, fishery", "public administration", "private households" and "extra-territorial organizations", as well as in all enterprises with at least 10 employees.
The population consists of all employees with no age restriction or restriction of the number of hours. Part-time employees are included.
The hourly gross wage (with use of the arithmetic mean) includes paid overtime and excludes extraordinary payments.

© Statistisches Bundesamt (Destatis), 2018

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