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In brief


In price statistics, results of price comparisons in time or regional terms are published in the form of indices. The indices refer to the levels of consumers, producers, wholesale trade and foreign trade. Absolute average prices in euros are calculated only as purchase values of building land or agricultural land and of energy sources.

Consumer prices

The consumer price index (CPI) measures the price movement of all goods and services bought by households for consumption purposes. These goods and services include for instance food, clothing and motor vehicles, and rents, cleaning services and repairs. Colloquially, the change in the consumer price index for Germany on the same month a year earlier or on the previous year is also referred to as inflation rate.

For European purposes, the Federal Statistical Office additionally calculates a harmonised index of consumer prices (HICP) which measures the price trends in Germany in accordance with harmonised European concepts, methods and procedures.

Producer prices

The price developments for raw materials and industrial products produced and sold in Germany are shown by the index of producer prices for industrial products.This includes mineral oil products, metals, basic chemicals and food.The producers of such goods are classified under manufacturing, energy and water management and mining.

The indices of producer prices for agriculture and forestry show the development of producer prices of agricultural products from crop and animal production, such as grain, rape and cattle. The development of producer prices of forestry products (stem wood and industrial wood) is shown, too. On the expenditure side, indices are available which show the price development for means of agricultural production, such as seed and seedlings, energy and lubricants, fertilisers and feeding stuffs.

The price developments for services provided in specific branches to industrial and private customers are represented by producer price indices for services. This covers transport and logistics, information and communication, professional, scientific and technical activities as well as administrative and support services.

Foreign trade prices

The Federal Statistical Office measures the average price developments for all goods traded between Germany and foreign countries by compiling the import price index and the export price index. The import price index covers, for example, crude oil, mineral oil products, raw materials and grain.

Construction and real property prices

The Federal Statistical Office calculates indices of construction and real property prices reflecting price developments in individual sub-branches of the construction and real property industry. The best known indices here are the indices of construction operation prices.They illustrate the developments of producer prices of construction operations, for example, construction operations of masonry work, scaffolding work or carpentry and structural timberwork.

In addition, price developments are shown for prefabricated houses and residential property or one-family houses. Also, the Federal Statistical Office ascertains purchase values of building land and of agricultural land.

Wholesale prices

The wholesale price indexpresents the price development for goods sold by wholesalers in the domestic territory to the extent that such sales are included under the wholesale function.Goods sold include, for example, petrol, heating oil, metals, ores, grain and seed.

The goods may either have been produced in the domestic territory or have been imported to Germany. Direct sales to end users or to foreign countries are not included.

International comparison

The Federal Statistical Office calculates place-to-place index numbers for the remuneration of German public officials abroad, which reflect price differences between Germany and other countries regarding a basket of goods containing consumer goods typically purchased by households of German employees and public officials.

The purchasing power parities calculated by Eurostat are based on prices collected by the national statistical offices and allow regional comparisons between prices paid in various countries for an internationally co-ordinated basket of goods.

The calculation of parities of consumer prices was discontinued at the end of reference year 2009.

In FOCUS / 2018-03-02

Fluctuations in energy prices

The strong fluctuations in energy prices have increased many users’ interest in reliable official data on the price development for various energy types. In this context, demand focuses on information showing the causes of the current price developments. This includes price indices at various stages in the economic and marketing processes regarding the different energy types. Such indices can be used to understand the price development, from imports of primary energy sources or their domestic production to the price effects for individual groups of final consumers.

The publication "Data on energy price trends" combines energy data from various price statistics of the Federal Statistical Office and the Statistical Office of the EU (Eurostat).


Index of wholesale prices

Import & export prices

Additional Information

Key figures

Change on the previous year in %
Consumer prices02/20181.4
Pro­ducer prices of
indus­trial pro­ducts
Whole­sale prices02/20181.2
Construc­tion prices11/20173.4
Import prices01/20180.7
Export prices01/20180.7


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Price indices in Contracts


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