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Education, research, culture

Theme in brief

Educational level

The qualification of the population is particularly important from an economic point of view as it has a positive effect on the performance of the national economy. As regards individuals, a high educational level improves their chances on the labour market and their active participation in social life. The educational level of older people differs markedly from that of the younger age groups, especially for women. Today the learning opportunities offered by the educational system are used equally by men and women, so that women of the younger generations now have higher qualifications than men. The data on the educational level (educational attainment) are obtained from the microcensus, the largest annual household survey in Germany.


Educational level



  • Apprentices with newly concluded training contract

Instituitons of higher education


Total of institution of higher education


New entrants

Examinations passed

Postdoctoral lecturing qualifications

Total staff at institutions of higher education

Proportion of women

Continuing education

Educational and cultural finance


Expenditure (basic funds) of public budgets on education, science and culture

Expenditure on public schools per pupil

Expenditure on science, research and development

Expenditure of institutions of higher education

Current funding


Promotion of education and training


Training assistance under the Federal Training Assistance Act (BAföG)

Upgrading training assistance under the Upgrading Training Assistance Act (AFBG)

Additional Information

Key figures

11,105 mn
Apprentices20121,4230 mn
2,613 mn
Public edu­cation expen­diture2011140,7 bn
Share of edu­cation expen­diture in gross domestic product (GDP)20116.7%
Recipients of training assis­tance2012979,347
Research expen­diture201175,5 bn
Public cul­tural expen­diture20099.1 bn


247.4 billion euros went to education, science and research in 2012

Number of pupils continues to decline in school year 2013/14

Expenditure on public schools in 2011: 6,000 euros per pupil


Understanding statistics

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© Statistisches Bundesamt, Wiesbaden 2014