Education, research, culture
The qualification of the population is particularly important from an economic point of view as it has a positive effect on the performance of the national economy. As regards individuals, a high educational level improves their chances on the labour market and their active participation in social life. The educational level of older people differs markedly from that of the younger age groups, especially for women. Today the learning opportunities offered by the educational system are used equally by men and women, so that women of the younger generations now have higher qualifications than men. The data on the educational level (educational attainment) are obtained from the microcensus, the largest annual household survey in Germany.
School statistics comprise data on schools of general education and vocational schools. Due to the educational autonomy of the German Länder, the structure of the school system differs between Länder. For federal results and comparisons between Länder, school types and types of qualification are allocated to all-German standard terms.
The dual system of vocational training, which takes place both at work and at school, is, by tradition, of particular importance in Germany. It covers about two thirds of all juveniles in almost all fields of economic life.
Institutions of higher education cover the part of the educational system where academic education is provided. Institutions of higher education comprise all officially recognised universities, comprehensive universities, colleges of theology and education, colleges of art and music, universities of applied sciences and colleges of public administration.
At a time of rapid societal and technological change, employees have to meet higher requirements in terms of qualification and flexibility. People who have finished a first educational phase use continuing education to deepen, extend or refresh their knowledge and skills. Continuing education comprises retraining and master craftsman’s courses, language courses, obtaining school qualifications not achieved before, or leisure-oriented courses. In official statistics, data are shown on general and vocational continuing education.
Research and development are key elements of scientific activities. Research is the acquisition of new knowledge, while development is its first practical application to products or production methods. The research landscape in Germany consists of three sectors: government and private non-profit institutions, institutions of higher education, and businesses. Official research statistics focus on public, and publicly funded, institutions for science, research and development as well as on institutions of higher education. Research statistics in Germany are compiled by the Federal Statistical Office and by the Stifterverband für die Deutsche Wissenschaft (Donors’ Association for the Promotion of Sciences and Humanities in Germany).
Culture is a multifaceted term, which includes not only arts and cultural goods but also ways of living, value systems, traditions. The statistical representation of culture is based on a narrower definition. It describes selected cultural goods, cultural services and institutions whose goods and services are used by the population. Data are available on museums, theatres, libraries, the film industry, music schools, choirs, and public broadcasting (radio and television).
The data of the Federal Statistical Office on the education budget give an overview of the resources available in the education sector and show the proportion of education expenditure in the gross domestic product. Key figures regarding expenditure of public budgets on education and culture are expenditure per pupil, current basic funds per student and statistics of cultural finance.
by vocational training occupations (Top 20)
by vocational training occupations (TOP 20)
Population by highest level of general education completed in Germany
Expenditure of Public Institutions and Institutions receiving public funding on Science, Research and Development
Expenditure of insitutions of higher education by areas of study
Current funding and third party funds per scientific personnel and professor
Current funding per student
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© Statistisches Bundesamt, Wiesbaden 2015
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