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Press release 050 / 2019-02-14: Gross domestic product in the 4th quarter of 2018 at the previous quarter's level

Gross domestic product, 4th quarter of 2018
0.0% on the previous quarter (price, seasonally and calendar adjusted)
+0.9% on the same quarter a year earlier (price adjusted)
+0.6% on the same quarter a year earlier (price and calendar adjusted)

Gross domestic product, price-adjusted in %Enlarge picture WIESBADEN – In the fourth quarter of 2018, the gross domestic product (GDP) remained nearly at the previous quarter's level after adjustment for price, seasonal and calendar variations. Hence short-term economic development in Germany showed two trends in 2018. The Federal Statistical Office (Destatis) reports that, after a dynamic start into the first half of the year (+0.4% in the first quarter, +0.5% in the second quarter), a small dip (-0.2% in the third quarter, 0.0% in the fourth quarter) was recorded in the second half of the year. For the whole year of 2018, this was an increase of 1.4% (calendar adjusted: 1.5%). Hence growth was slightly smaller than reported in January.

The quarter-on-quarter comparison (price, seasonally and calendar adjusted) reveals that positive contributions mainly came from domestic demand. Gross fixed capital formation, especially in construction but also in machinery and equipment, increased markedly compared with the third quarter of 2018. While household final consumption expenditure increased slightly, general government final consumption expenditure was markedly up at the end of the year. However, development of foreign trade did not make a positive contribution to growth in the fourth quarter. According to provisional calculations, exports and imports of goods and services increased nearly at the same rate in the quarter-on-quarter comparison.

Measured by unadjusted figures, economic growth slowed down year on year. The price adjusted GDP rose by 0.9% (calendar adjusted: 0.6%) in the fourth quarter of 2018, following increases of 1.1% (also calendar adjusted) in the third quarter of 2018, 2.3% (calendar adjusted: 2.0%) in the second quarter of 2018 and 1.4% in the first quarter of 2018 (calendar adjusted: 2.1%).

According to the current state of calculation, there was no measurable statistical carry-over effect at the end of 2018. The statistical carry-over effect is the rate of GDP change which would be obtained for 2019 if the seasonally and calendar adjusted GDP in all quarters of 2019 just remained unchanged compared with the fourth quarter of 2018.

The economic performance in the fourth quarter of 2018 was achieved by 45.2 million persons in employment, which was an increase of 507,000, or 1.1%, on a year earlier.

In addition to calculating first data for the fourth quarter of 2018, the results published previously for the first three quarters and the year 2018 were also reviewed and, where necessary, new statistical information was incorporated in the calculation of results. As is usual for seasonally and calendar adjusted series, however, modified results may appear in the whole time series from 1991 onwards.

Gross domestic product, Price-adjusted, chain-linked
 Unadjusted figuresFigures according to Census X-12-ARIMA
Seasonally and
Calendar-adjusted 1Calendar-effect
2010 = 100%22010 = 100%32010 = 100%2%2
1 For years the calendar-adjusted values are identical with the seasonally and calendar-adjusted values (except for differences due to rounding).
2 Change on the previous year or the same quarter of the preceding year in %.
3 Change on the previous year or previous quarter in %.
qtr = quarter
20171st qtr113.403.4112.841.1112.632.11.2
2nd qtr112.450.9113.460.5112.762.2-1.3
3rd qtr115.502.2114.120.6115.912.6-0.5
4th qtr113.272.2114.730.5113.852.8-0.6
20181st qtr114.951.4115.160.4114.972.1-0.7
2nd qtr115.092.3115.680.5114.982.00.4
3rd qtr116.771.1115.45-0.2117.241.1-0.0
4th qtr114.300.9115.470.0114.560.60.3
Gross domestic product at current prices
 Unadjusted figuresSeasonally and calendar-adjusted
figures according to
Census X-12-ARIMA
EUR billionChange in %1EUR billionChange in %2

1 Change on the previous year or the same quarter of the preceding year.
2 Change on the previous year or previous quarter.

qtr = quarter



1st qtr803.3704.3806.3151.3
2nd qtr808.7202.5816.7861.3
3rd qtr833.2404.2825.7111.1
4th qtr832.0104.0832.5200.8
20181st qtr828.9803.2837.9440.7
2nd qtr842.8604.2847.6521.2
3rd qtr858.3803.0851.2310.4
4th qtr855.7802.9853.9130.3
Comparison between previous and new figures
Gross domestic product, price-adjusted. chain-linked
New resultPrevious result
chain index
(2010 = 100)
percentage change1chain index
(2010 = 100)
percentage change1
1 Seasonally and calendar-adjusted figures: Change on the previous year or the same quarter of the preceding year in %.
Unadjusted figures: Change on the previous year or the same quarter of the preceding year in %.
qtr = quarter
Seasonally and calendar-adjusted figures according to Census X-12-ARIMA
20171st qtr112.841.1112.841.1
2nd qtr113.460.5113.460.5
3rd qtr114.120.6114.120.6
4th qtr114.730.5114.730.5
20181st qtr115.160.4115.150.4
2nd qtr115.680.5115.670.5
3rd qtr115.45-0.2115.44-0.2
4th qtr115.470.0xx
Unadjusted figures
20171st qtr113.403.4113.403.4
2nd qtr112.450.9112.450.9
3rd qtr115.502.2115.502.2
4th qtr113.272.2113.272.2
20181st qtr114.951.4114.951.4
2nd qtr115.092.3115.092.3
3rd qtr116.771.1116.771.1
4th qtr114.300.9xx

More detailed results will be released by the Federal Statistical Office on 22 February 2019. At that time, the results in the new interactive national accounts dashboard (only in german) will be updated, too.

Due to conversion work on the internet pages, online publications containing further information are not available at present. Copies will be sent by email, if this is requested using our contact form.

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