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EU comparison 2018: Germany and the other Member States

All data is published by Eurostat and was extracted from the Eurostat database in October 2018. Some values are provisional. Links at the bottom of the table lead to the corresponding Eurostat database section, where the most recent data can be downloaded.

Population

All over Europe the society is ageing. This process is the consequence of low birth rates (European Union (EU-28): 1.60 children per woman) and ever increasing life expectancy. Although immigration has and will continue to have a moderating effect, it is not expected to reverse the trend. The graph which best illustrates the age structure of society, traditionally known as the population pyramid, is looking less and less like its eponym. The proportion of people aged 65 and over in the European Union has increased from 17% in 2007 to 19% in 2017. This may not seem a big increase, but in demographic terms it is highly significant. In six Member States – Italy, Greece, Germany, Portugal, Finland and Bulgaria – the proportion of society aged 65 plus has already surpassed the 20% mark.




Population
CountryTotal populationPopulation projections1Share of foreign citizens2Total fertility rate

Life expectancy at birth

millions%children per womanfemalemale
2018206020172016

1 Eurostat population projections 2015 based.

2 Including citizens of other Member States of the European Union and non-citizens of the European Union.

. = Numerical value unknown or not to be disclosed.

Last update: 2018-10-01

Germany82.980.811.21.6083.578.6
Austria8.810.215.21.5384.179.3
Belgium11.413.611.91.6884.079.0
Bulgaria7.15.21.11.5478.571.3
Croatia4.13.51.11.4281.375.0
Cyprus0.91.016.41.3784.980.5
Czech Republic10.610.34.81.6382.176.1
Denmark5.86.88.41.7982.879.0
Estonia1.31.214.91.6082.273.3
Finland5.55.74.41.5784.478.6
France67.275.56.91.9285.779.5
Greece10.78.37.51.3884.078.9
Hungary9.89.11.51.5379.772.6
Ireland4.85.911.81.8183.679.9
Italy60.556.98.31.3485.681.0
Latvia1.91.414.31.7479.669.8
Lithuania2.81.80.71.6980.169.5
Luxembourg0.61.047.61.4185.480.1
Malta0.50.511.81.3784.480.6
Netherlands17.119.35.41.6683.280.0
Poland38.032.80.61.3982.073.9
Portugal10.38.63.91.3684.378.1
Romania19.515.70.61.6479.171.7
Slovakia5.45.11.31.4880.773.8
Slovenia2.12.05.51.5884.378.2
Spain46.749.69.51.3486.380.5
Sweden10.113.38.41.8584.180.6
United Kingdom66.279.39.21.7983.079.4
EU-28512.6524.6. 1.6083.678.2
Eurostat databasePopulationPopulation projectionsPopulation by citizenship - ForeignersTotal fertility rateLife expectancy at birth (Female)Life expectancy at birth (Male)

Economy and finance

The price level of private consumption expenditure in Germany was by 5.0% higher than the average of the 28 Member States of the European Union in 2017. In most of Germany's bordering countries the price level was higher. As in previous years, the only bordering countries with a lower cost of living were Poland and the Czech Republic. Within the European Union the price level was highest in Denmark (+41.5% above the average of the 28 Member States of the European Union), followed by Luxembourg (+26.9%) and Sweden (+25.5%). The lowest price level was reported in Bulgaria, where consumers paid less than half the amount (-51.6%) for a representative basket of goods than they did on average across the European Union.




Economy and finance
CountryGross domestic product at market prices (GDP)GDP growth rateInflation rate2General government deficit/surplus3General government gross debt
bn EURper inhabitant (PPS)1%% of GDP
2017

1 Purchasing Power Standards (PPS) = artificial currency to compensate for price level differences between the European Union countries; 1 Purchasing Power Standard (PPS) is the average purchasing power of 1 euro in the European Union (EU-28).

2 Harmonised Indices of Consumer Prices (HICP) - annual rate of change.

3 Annual government debt (-) or surplus (+).

Last update: 2018-10-18

Germany3,27737,0002.21.71.364.1
Austria37038,2002.62.2-0.778.4
Belgium43734,9001.72.2-1.0103.1
Bulgaria5215,1003.81.20.925.4
Croatia4918,4002.91.30.878.0
Cyprus2025,5004.20.71.897.5
Czech Republic19226,4004.32.41.634.6
Denmark28937,5002.31.11.036.4
Estonia2423,7004.93.7-0.39.0
Finland22432,7002.80.8-0.661.4
France2,29231,2002.21.2-2.697.0
Greece18020,3001.51.10.8178.6
Hungary12420,5004.12.4-2.073.6
Ireland29454,8007.20.3-0.368.0
Italy1,72528,8001.61.3-2.3131.8
Latvia2720,2004.62.9-0.540.1
Lithuania4223,6004.13.70.539.7
Luxembourg5575,8002.32.11.523.0
Malta1128,6006.71.33.950.8
Netherlands73738,4002.91.31.156.7
Poland46720,9004.81.6-1.750.6
Portugal19523,2002.81.6-3.0125.7
Romania18818,7007.31.1-2.935.0
Slovakia8523,0003.21.4-1.050.9
Slovenia4325,2004.91.60.073.6
Spain1,16627,7003.02.0-3.198.3
Sweden47536,4002.11.91.340.6
United Kingdom2,33231,6001.72.7-1.987.7
EU-2815,37430,0002.41.7-1.081.6
Eurostat databaseGross domestic productGDP per inhabitantReal GDP - Percentage change on previous yearHICP annual rate of changeGeneral government deficit/surplusGeneral government gross debt

Labour and social issues

Statutory national minimum wages are generally determined by legislation. In general, national minimum wages apply to all employees or at least to most persons employed in a given country. The minimum wages presented here are gross wages before tax and social security deductions. Of the 28 Member States of the European Union a total of 22 had a statutory minimum wage in 2018. The level at which this wage was set varied from 261 euros per month in Bulgaria to 1,999 euros per month in Luxembourg. In Germany a statutory minimum wage of 8.50 euros per hour (1,440 euros per month) was introduced on 1 January 2015. As of 1 January 2017, the statutory minimum wage in Germany was increased to 8.84 euros per hour (1,498 euros per month).




Labour and social issues
CountryEmployment rateUnemployment rateChildren under 18 living in jobless households1At-risk-of-poverty rate2
age 20 to 64age 55 to 64age 20 to 64age 15 to 24
%
2017

1 Jobless households are households where the adults have used less than 20% of their labor potential in the previous year.

2 Share of people living on less than 60% of the average income of the total population. Social transfers are included in the calculation of income.

Last update: 2018-10-17

Germany79.270.13.76.89.416.1
Austria75.451.35.39.86.714.4
Belgium68.548.37.019.312.115.9
Bulgaria71.358.26.112.912.123.4
Croatia63.640.310.827.48.4.
Cyprus70.855.311.124.79.515.7
Czech Republic78.562.12.87.96.09.1
Denmark76.968.95.311.08.912.4
Estonia78.768.15.712.16.321.0
Finland74.262.58.120.15.111.5
France70.651.39.122.312.013.3
Greece57.838.321.443.69.220.2
Hungary73.351.74.010.77.513.4
Ireland73.058.46.414.411.8.
Italy62.352.211.134.79.620.3
Latvia74.862.38.817.08.222.1
Lithuania76.066.17.213.39.822.9
Luxembourg71.539.85.315.47.618.7
Malta73.047.23.610.66.916.8
Netherlands78.065.74.48.96.313.2
Poland70.948.34.814.88.315.0
Portugal73.456.28.923.95.918.3
Romania68.844.54.818.39.423.6
Slovakia71.153.07.918.98.012.4
Slovenia73.442.76.611.23.013.3
Spain65.550.516.938.69.821.6
Sweden81.876.46.017.95.815.8
United Kingdom78.264.13.812.111.6.
EU-2872.257.17.516.89.816.9
Eurostat databaseEmployment rate, 20 to 64 yearsEmployment rate 55 to 64 yearsUnemployment rate 20 to 64 yearsUnemployment rate 15 to 24 yearsChildren in jobless householdsPeople at risk of poverty

Education

The abbreviation NEET stands for the term "not in education, employment or training" and refers to youngsters and younger adults, that no longer attend school, are not employed and do not partake in any form of vocational training. The term gained popularity in recent years, when it emerged that younger people were particularly affected by the negative impact of the most recent European Union recession.




Education
CountryPupils per teacher - secondary levelEarly leavers from education (aged 18-24)1Tertiary educational attainment, age group 30-342Public expenditure
femalemaleEducationResearch and development (R&D)
number%% of GDP
2016201720152016

1 Early leavers from education are all persons aged 18-24 years only with school graduation secondary level, currently no further education or training.

2 Persons with an university degree on International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) level 5 or 6.

. = Numerical value unknown or not to be disclosed.

Last update: 2018-10-17

Germany12.910.134.233.84.52.9
Austria10.17.444.037.75.43.1
Belgium9.88.950.940.86.42.5
Bulgaria12.112.740.525.53.90.8
Croatia9.23.135.422.1. 0.9
Cyprus9.18.563.647.36.40.5
Czech Republic11.06.741.027.73.81.7
Denmark. 8.856.741.1. 2.9
Estonia15.310.855.641.6. 1.3
Finland17.28.252.037.36.82.8
France11.38.949.638.75.52.3
Greece9.16.050.537.03.71.0
Hungary11.112.537.527.04.31.2
Ireland. 5.158.947.53.81.2
Italy10.414.034.119.84.11.3
Latvia9.88.656.032.15.30.4
Lithuania7.75.468.147.64.10.9
Luxembourg9.07.355.649.83.91.2
Malta8.317.735.032.25.40.6
Netherlands17.97.151.844.05.42.0
Poland10.25.055.536.34.81.0
Portugal9.612.640.426.24.81.3
Romania13.818.128.923.92.70.5
Slovakia13.79.342.426.74.60.8
Slovenia14.24.358.834.74.62.0
Spain10.718.347.534.84.21.2
Sweden13.77.758.444.67.13.3
United Kingdom16.510.650.845.85.71.7
EU-2812.010.644.934.95.02.0
Eurostat databasePupils per teacherEarly leavers from educationTertiary educational attainment, female, age group 30-34Tertiary educational attainment, male, age group 30-34Expenditure on educationExpenditure on research and development

Environment and energy

The Member States of the European Union have committed to increasing the share of renewable energy sources in gross final energy consumption to 20% by the year 2020. Each Member State has its own Europe 2020 target. The national targets take into account the Member States' different starting points, renewable energy potential and economic performance. Germany’s renewable share amounted to 14.8% in 2016 - the share is continually increasing but has as yet remained below the national target level set at 18%. 11 of the 28 Member States have already met their national 2020 targets. In terms of gross final energy consumption covered by renewables, Sweden (53.8%) had the highest share of all Member States of the European Union in 2016, ahead of Finland (38.7%) and Latvia (37.2%).




Environment and energy
CountryArea under organic farmingGreenhouse gas emissionsEnergy dependency rate1Share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumptionPassenger transport - share of rail transport2
as % of total agriculture areatonnes of CO2 equivalent per capitaindex
(1990=100)
%
2016

1 The energy dependence shows how an economy is dependent on imports to fulfill its energy needs. It represents the net import of energy in relation to gross domestic consumption. Countries that export more than they import energy have negative values.

2 Based on total passenger transport by passenger cars, busses and trains.

= No figures or magnitude zero.

Last update: 2018-10-01

Germany6.811.4746414.88.6
Austria21.39.41036233.512.1
Belgium5.810.882768.77.7
Bulgaria3.28.4573718.82.2
Croatia6.15.9764828.32.7
Cyprus4.911.3153969.3-
Czech Republic14.012.4663314.98.9
Denmark7.79.3741432.28.6
Estonia18.015.049728.82.0
Finland10.511.1844538.75.6
France5.37.1864716.09.7
Greece6.58.8907415.21.0
Hungary3.56.3665614.29.3
Ireland1.713.5113699.52.9
Italy14.07.2847817.46.1
Latvia13.46.0444737.23.4
Lithuania7.57.1427725.61.0
Luxembourg3.519.888965.44.6
Malta0.25.0991016.0-
Netherlands2.912.292466.011.0
Poland3.710.5853011.37.3
Portugal6.86.91167428.54.2
Romania1.75.8462225.04.2
Slovakia9.87.6565912.09.4
Slovenia9.18.6954821.32.0
Spain8.57.31167217.36.6
Sweden18.35.6763253.89.3
United Kingdom2.87.964359.38.8
EU-286.78.7785417.07.7
Eurostat databaseArea under organic farmingGreenhouse gas emis­sions per inhabitantGreenhouse gas emis­sionsEnergy dependenceShare of renewable energyPassenger transport: trains

© Statistisches Bundesamt (Destatis), 2018

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