Europe Data by topic

Topics in brief

General and regional statistics

Important general and regional indicators
CountryLand areaGDP per capitaUnemployment rate Onlineshopping Broadband connection
km2euro% of active population
(age 20 to 64)
% of individuals aged 16 to 74% of households
2023202220232021
Germany353,29646,2603.17789
Austria82,51949,4004.57291
Belgium30,45247,4405.37592
Bulgaria110,00113,2704.24584
Croatia55,89617,4006.75986
Cyprus9,21330,4306.75793
Czechia77,21225,8502.27889
Denmark41,98764,4504.18992
Estonia43,11027,0405.57391
Finland304,31648,3006.37995
France633,88638,5506.97788
Greece130,04819,55012.35885
Hungary91,24817,4403.57091
Ireland68,65598,9904.2- 93
Italy297,82532,9808.05188
Latvia63,29020,6106.96289
Lithuania62,64323,8006.16186
Luxembourg2,586118,7104.18097
Malta31332,8802.76891
Netherlands34,18854,1502.99299
Poland307,23617,3002.86492
Portugal90,99623,5306.05584
Romania234,27014,9205.25088
Slovakia48,70219,9806.07790
Slovenia20,14527,0503.96693
Spain502,65428,28012.66996
Sweden407,30053,6906.38991
EU-274,103,98735,4306.06990
Eurostat databaseLand areaGDP per capitaUnemployment rateOnlineshoppingBroadband connection

= No figures or magnitude zero.

. = Numerical value unknown or not to be disclosed.

As at February 15, 2024

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Economy and finance

Important economic and financial indicators
CountryGross domestic product (GDP) at market pricesGDP growth rateInflation rate2General government deficit/surplus3General government gross debt
bn eurosper inhabitant (PPS)1%% of GDP
202220232022
Germany3,87741,3471.86.0-2.566.1
Austria44744,0004.87.7-3.578.4
Belgium55442,3853.02.3-3.5104.3
Bulgaria8622,0153.98.6-2.922.6
Croatia6825,8256.38.40.168.2
Cyprus2833,3845.13.92.485.6
Czechia27632,0432.412.0-3.244.2
Denmark38148,3602.73.43.329.8
Estonia3630,137-0.59.1-1.018.5
Finland26838,9541.64.3-0.873.3
France2,63935,4902.55.7-4.8111.8
Greece20723,8325.64.2-2.4172.6
Hungary16926,9854.617.0-6.273.9
Ireland50683,2649.45.21.744.4
Italy1,94634,3693.75.9-8.0141.7
Latvia3925,7423.49.1-4.641.0
Lithuania6731,6352.48.7-0.738.1
Luxembourg7890,9031.42.9-0.324.7
Malta1736,8708.25.6-5.752.3
Netherlands95946,2674.34.1-0.150.1
Poland65528,1615.310.9-3.749.3
Portugal24227,9086.85.3-0.3112.4
Romania28426,6744.19.7-6.347.2
Slovakia11025,1911.811.0-2.057.8
Slovenia5731,8812.57.2-3.072.3
Spain1,34630,3225.83.4-4.7111.6
Sweden56342,3542.95.91.132.9
EU-2715,90535,4253.46.4-3.383.5
Eurostat databaseGross domestic product at market pricesGross domestic product per inhabitantGross domestic product growth rateInflation rateGeneral government deficit/surplusGeneral government gross debt

1 Purchasing Power Standards (PPS) = artificial currency to compensate for price level differences between the European Union countries; 1 Purchasing Power Standard (PPS) is the average purchasing power of 1 euro in the European Union (EU-27).

2 Harmonised Indices of Consumer Prices (HICP) - annual rate of change.

3 Annual government deficit (-) or surplus (+).

As at February 15, 2024

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Population

Important population indicators
CountryTotal population Population projections1Total fertility rateLife expectancy at birth
millionschildren per womanfemalemale
2023206020212022
Germany84.484.31.58- -
Austria9.19.51.4883.578.8
Belgium11.812.61.6083.979.6
Bulgaria6.45.61.5878.170.8
Croatia3.93.11.5880.874.6
Cyprus0.91.01.3983.679.9
Czechia10.810.71.8382.076.2
Denmark5.96.21.7283.279.5
Estonia1.41.31.6182.473.7
Finland5.65.31.4683.878.7
France68.170.11.8485.279.4
Greece10.48.31.4383.378.1
Hungary9.69.11.6179.572.7
Ireland5.26.11.78- -
Italy58.955.41.2585.080.9
Latvia1.91.41.5779.669.8
Lithuania2.92.21.3680.371.5
Luxembourg0.70.91.3885.380.9
Malta0.50.81.1384.880.7
Netherlands17.818.71.6283.280.3
Poland36.833.41.3381.373.5
Portugal10.59.31.3584.578.8
Romania19.115.71.8179.371.5
Slovakia5.45.01.6380.673.7
Slovenia2.12.01.6484.178.6
Spain48.149.31.1985.980.4
Sweden10.512.61.6784.881.5
EU-27448.4440.11.5383.478.0
Eurostat databasePopulationPopulation projectionsTotal fertility rateLife expectancy at birth (female)Life expectancy at birth (male)

1 Eurostat population projections EUROPOP 2023.

= No figures or magnitude zero.

As at February 15, 2024

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Labour market

Important labour market indicators
CountryEmployment rateUnemployment rate
age 20 to 64age 55 to 64age 20 to 64age 15 to 24
%% of active population
2022
Germany80.773.33.16.0
Austria77.356.44.59.5
Belgium71.956.65.316.4
Bulgaria75.768.24.210.7
Croatia69.750.16.718.0
Cyprus77.965.06.718.6
Czechia81.372.92.26.8
Denmark80.172.94.110.6
Estonia81.973.75.518.6
Finland78.471.26.314.2
France74.056.96.917.3
Greece66.351.912.331.4
Hungary80.265.63.510.6
Ireland78.266.74.210.1
Italy64.855.08.023.7
Latvia77.069.56.915.3
Lithuania79.069.86.111.9
Luxembourg74.846.64.117.6
Malta81.154.52.78.3
Netherlands82.973.12.97.6
Poland76.756.42.810.8
Portugal77.165.16.019.1
Romania68.546.75.222.8
Slovakia76.764.16.019.9
Slovenia77.955.23.910.1
Spain69.557.712.629.8
Sweden82.277.36.321.7
EU-2774.662.36.014.5
Eurostat databaseEmployment rate (age 20 to 64)Employment rate (age 55 to 64)Unemployment rate (age 20 to 64)Unemployment rate (age 15 to 24)

As at February 15, 2024

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Education

Important education indicators
CountryPupils per teacher - secondary level1Early leavers from education (aged 18-24)2Tertiary educational attainment, age group 30-343Public expenditure
femalemaleEducationResearch and development (R&D)
number%% of GDP
2021202220202022
Germany12.112.240.638.15.13.1
Austria10.08.448.439.75.43.2
Belgium7.06.460.645.66.73.4
Bulgaria12.110.539.227.94.50.8
Croatia8.22.344.224.23.81.4
Cyprus8.38.170.054.85.70.8
Czechia10.46.244.728.94.72.0
Denmark12.810.060.744.26.92.9
Estonia16.210.855.636.7- 1.8
Finland17.18.453.440.96.33.0
France11.37.652.945.35.72.2
Greece9.14.151.338.0- 1.5
Hungary10.212.441.228.03.81.4
Ireland12.43.763.660.2- 1.0
Italy10.111.533.821.04.41.3
Latvia11.86.755.736.14.60.8
Lithuania9.54.870.252.04.31.0
Luxembourg9.18.265.760.33.81.0
Malta7.010.146.639.05.20.7
Netherlands17.45.660.252.05.42.3
Poland11.34.857.835.94.81.5
Portugal10.56.050.035.94.81.7
Romania13.615.629.923.03.10.5
Slovakia13.37.451.227.84.81.0
Slovenia13.44.061.438.15.12.1
Spain10.313.955.443.04.71.4
Sweden13.48.863.547.77.33.4
EU-2711.19.648.237.45.02.2
Eurostat databasePupils per teacherEarly leavers from educationTertiary educational attainment (female, age group 30-34)Tertiary educational attainment (male, age group 30-34)Expenditure on educationExpenditure on research and development

1 Partly differing definition.

2 Early leavers from education are all persons aged 18-24 years with at most school graduation lower secondary level, currently no further education or training.

3 Persons with an university degree on International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) level 5 to 8.

= No figures or magnitude zero.

As at February 15, 2024

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Health

Important health indicators
CountryHospital bedsDeaths due to cancerHealthy life years
per 100,000 inhabitantsage 65, female age 65, male
202120202021
Germany776.0240.311.410.2
Austria691.5230.59.79.3
Belgium549.2223.211.311.0
Bulgaria792.3245.39.07.7
Croatia567.5303.95.25.1
Cyprus312.4205.69.39.1
Czechia665.5267.28.27.0
Denmark251.3271.010.29.5
Estonia439.4265.07.66.2
Finland- 211.311.410.3
France564.8226.612.611.3
Greece426.7240.87.77.6
Hungary678.6320.97.87.1
Ireland289.4255.413.012.3
Italy312.4227.010.710.8
Latvia516.4296.55.04.4
Lithuania605.4276.56.65.2
Luxembourg414.3203.111.210.7
Malta414.4212.511.612.2
Netherlands295.2261.39.79.2
Poland627.2279.78.97.7
Portugal351.1240.57.48.4
Romania720.6260.34.04.0
Slovakia567.5301.85.14.8
Slovenia424.9290.711.410.0
Spain296.1214.510.310.7
Sweden200.1214.114.814.5
EU-27524.8242.29.99.5
Eurostat databaseHospital beds per 100,000 inhabitantsDeaths due to cancer per 100,000 inhabitantsHealthy life years (age 65, female)Healthy life years (age 65, male)
= No figures or magnitude zero.

As at February 15, 2024

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Social issues and living conditions

Important indicators on social issues and living conditions
CountryPeople at risk of poverty or social exclusionAt-risk-of-poverty rate1Overburding by housing cost2Inability to face unexpected financial expenses
Persons in mn% of population
2022
Germany17.314.711.833.5
Austria1.614.87.419.0
Belgium2.113.27.722.7
Bulgaria2.222.915.142.4
Croatia0.818.03.844.8
Cyprus0.113.92.539.7
Czechia1.210.26.917.5
Denmark1.012.414.720.2
Estonia0.322.84.931.2
Finland0.912.75.423.2
France13.915.66.531.4
Greece2.718.826.743.6
Hungary1.812.18.133.9
Ireland1.014.03.934.7
Italy14.320.16.632.9
Latvia0.522.55.444.1
Lithuania0.720.93.539.3
Luxembourg0.117.315.218.8
Malta0.116.72.915.4
Netherlands2.914.510.014.6
Poland5.913.75.627.1
Portugal2.116.45.029.9
Romania6.521.28.547.9
Slovakia0.913.72.527.0
Slovenia0.312.14.124.6
Spain12.220.49.235.5
Sweden1.916.09.121.2
EU-2795.316.58.731.5
Eurostat databasePeople at risk of poverty or social exclusionAt-risk-of-poverty rateOverburding by housing costInability to face unexpected financial expenses

1 The share of persons with an equivalised disposable income below the risk-of-poverty threshold, which is set at 60% of the national median equivalised disposable income (after social transfers).

2 The share of persons living in households spending more than 40% of net disposable income on housing.

As at February 15, 2024

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Industry, trade and services

Important indicators on industry, trade and services
CountryIndustryRetail trade: TurnoverBuilding permits (dwellings)
% of gross value addedManufacturing production index: % change on previous yearReal % change on previous yearNumber: % change on previous year
202220232022
Germany24.0-0.9-3.0-7.1
Austria21.9-1.9- -22.0
Belgium17.1-4.2-6.1-10.6
Bulgaria24.9-4.91.720.5
Croatia18.20.0-0.712.9
Cyprus8.3- 5.8-6.3
Czechia27.01.0-4.1-7.1
Denmark17.010.3-1.3-8.7
Estonia20.5-10.1-8.1-22.9
Finland22.4-3.2-2.9-18.0
France13.30.6-1.82.3
Greece17.24.2. 4.2
Hungary22.6-3.7-7.820.0
Ireland41.4. 1.1-20.5
Italy21.1-2.2-3.20.1
Latvia19.5-4.5-2.0-4.8
Lithuania21.4-3.7-1.0-18.0
Luxembourg5.7-4.93.7-22.9
Malta9.06.32.626.7
Netherlands17.0-7.5-2.2-14.9
Poland25.0-1.4-0.8-12.7
Portugal17.1-3.71.111.0
Romania22.8- 2.2-7.4
Slovakia25.2-0.5-4.2-16.2
Slovenia25.1-4.1-11.520.7
Spain17.40.17.266.8
Sweden20.31.7-5.2-23.2
EU-2720.6-1.6-1.82.0
Eurostat databaseIndustry: % of gross value addedManufacturing production indexRetail trade: TurnoverBuilding permits (dwellings)
. = Numerical value unknown or not to be disclosed.

As at February 15, 2024

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Agriculture, forestry and fisheries

Important indicators on agriculture, forestry and fisheries
CountryAgriculture, forestry and fisheriesArea under organic farmingRoundwood productionFishing
% of gross value added% of UAA1,000 m3 t
202220212022
Germany1.09.778,872161,845
Austria1.5- 19,358-
Belgium0.77.5- 18,442
Bulgaria4.31.75,9785,547
Croatia3.78.35,34363,493
Cyprus1.86.4141,249
Czechia2.115.6- -
Denmark1.311.6- 458,549
Estonia2.823.010,54171,135
Finland2.614.465,63792,290
France2.19.7- 516,516
Greece4.3- - 65,495
Hungary3.85.8- -
Ireland1.22.0- .
Italy2.016.8- 132,940
Latvia5.715.315,427.
Lithuania4.48.9- 73,462
Luxembourg0.35.2233-
Malta0.90.6- 2,537
Netherlands1.74.2- 298,298
Poland3.23.845,693128,425
Portugal2.119.314,619.
Romania4.14.417,4763,176
Slovakia2.513.47,435-
Slovenia2.110.84,157108
Spain2.610.817,921752,294
Sweden1.620.277,200139,037
EU-271.9- 509,286.
Eurostat databaseAgriculture, forestry and fisheriesArea under organic farmingRoundwood productionFishing

= No figures or magnitude zero.

. = Numerical value unknown or not to be disclosed.

As at February 15, 2024

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Foreign trade

Important foreign trade indicators
CountryExportsImportsForeign trade balance
million euros
2022
Germany1,593,285.41,505,152.988,132.6
Austria201,398.4221,991.8-20,593.4
Belgium606,450.7588,732.317,718.4
Bulgaria47,508.855,175.8-7,666.9
Croatia24,284.242,500.5-18,216.2
Cyprus4,154.911,610.4-7,455.6
Czechia230,242.7225,184.95,057.8
Denmark125,308.9122,012.73,296.2
Estonia21,276.525,025.3-3,748.7
Finland81,884.792,469.4-10,584.7
France589,710.2782,853.9-193,143.7
Greece54,807.593,342.5-38,535.0
Hungary144,218.0157,186.2-12,968.2
Ireland203,431.8140,176.263,255.6
Italy626,169.4660,210.0-34,040.6
Latvia22,954.828,121.4-5,166.6
Lithuania44,312.652,542.3-8,229.7
Luxembourg16,445.025,836.2-9,391.2
Malta3,101.68,132.8-5,031.2
Netherlands918,765.2854,662.764,102.6
Poland342,893.9362,540.9-19,647.1
Portugal78,402.7109,485.8-31,083.1
Romania91,972.8126,077.0-34,104.1
Slovakia103,042.8106,892.4-3,849.5
Slovenia66,410.666,355.655.0
Spain394,896.9469,850.5-74,953.5
Sweden187,959.0192,204.6-4,245.6
EU-271 22,572,130.63,006,697.2-434,566.6
Eurostat database Exports in million eurosImports in million eurosForeign trade balance in million euros

1 Extra-EU-Trade (Total Trade with all countries outside of the European Union).

2 Eurostat Database on Extra-EU-Trade.

As at February 15, 2024

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Transport

Important transport indicators
CountryAir transport passengers Passenger transport1Freight transport
millions% passenger cars% trains% railways
20222021
Germany155.388.86.519.0
Austria26.481.29.829.8
Belgium27.985.66.211.8
Bulgaria8.889.92.119.6
Croatia9.488.82.123.8
Cyprus8.687.3- -
Czechia11.585.06.522.8
Denmark26.686.76.28.7
Estonia2.789.32.040.1
Finland13.887.74.026.9
France136.686.09.110.6
Greece57.987.10.62.9
Hungary12.479.36.426.4
Ireland32.485.71.40.6
Italy132.482.84.412.6
Latvia5.488.52.453.4
Lithuania5.394.70.962.5
Luxembourg4.186.33.56.5
Malta5.985.9- -
Netherlands61.389.48.46.4
Poland39.386.35.922.0
Portugal57.191.32.910.7
Romania19.583.03.325.3
Slovakia1.983.76.232.1
Slovenia1.090.01.833.6
Spain199.687.45.34.3
Sweden25.084.17.528.8
EU-27819.886.36.017.0
Eurostat databaseAir transport passengersPassenger transport: % passenger carsPassenger transport: % trainsFreight transport: % railways

1 Calculation based on transport by passenger cars, buses and coaches and trains.

= No figures or magnitude zero.

As at February 15, 2024

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Environment and energy

Important indicators on environment and energy
CountryGreenhouse gas emissionsEnergy dependency rate1Renewable energy
tonnes of CO2 equivalent per capitaindex
(1990=100)
% in gross domestic consumption% share in gross final energy consumption
20212022
Germany9.4626920.8
Austria8.8997433.8
Belgium10.0787413.8
Bulgaria7.9553719.1
Croatia6.3776027.9
Cyprus10.31469219.4
Czechia11.4594218.2
Denmark7.7624341.6
Estonia9.632638.5
Finland8.8674147.9
France6.2775220.3
Greece7.6758022.7
Hungary6.7686415.2
Ireland12.61127913.1
Italy7.1807919.0
Latvia5.8423943.3
Lithuania7.3427229.6
Luxembourg17.6869114.4
Malta4.6849913.4
Netherlands10.0778015.0
Poland10.7854616.9
Portugal5.6967134.7
Romania6.0453224.1
Slovakia7.6567017.5
Slovenia7.7865425.0
Spain6.31027422.1
Sweden4.7672766.0
EU-277.9726323.0
Eurostat databaseGreenhouse gas emissions per capitaGreenhouse gas emissionsEnergy dependency rateShare of renewable energy
1 The energy dependence shows how an economy is dependent on imports to fulfill its energy needs. It is calculated as net imports divided by the gross available energy. Countries that export more than they import energy have negative values. Gross available energy is a calculated value, defined as: Primary production + Recovered & recycled products + Imports – Exports + Stock changes.

As at February 15, 2024

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Science and technology

Important indicators on science and technology
CountryGross domestic expenditure on research and development (R&D)Share of women researchersInternet useBroadband access
% of GDP% of total researchers% of individuals aged 16 to 74 % of households
2022202120232021
Germany3.129.49289
Austria3.231.29591
Belgium3.433.59592
Bulgaria0.848.38084
Croatia1.448.88386
Cyprus0.838.79193
Czechia2.027.19289
Denmark2.9- 9992
Estonia1.841.79391
Finland3.032.89895
France2.229.99388
Greece1.538.78585
Hungary1.429.39191
Ireland1.037.4- 93
Italy1.336.18788
Latvia0.849.89289
Lithuania1.048.58886
Luxembourg1.029.99997
Malta0.734.49291
Netherlands2.330.29999
Poland1.536.28692
Portugal1.742.68684
Romania0.546.68988
Slovakia1.040.78790
Slovenia2.134.49093
Spain1.441.69596
Sweden3.433.59891
EU-272.233.79190
Eurostat databaseExpenditure on research and developmentShare of women researchersInternet useBroadband access

= No figures or magnitude zero.

. = Numerical value unknown or not to be disclosed.

As at February 15, 2024

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